This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a patronymic form of either of two Olde English pre 7th Century given names, "Ealdhere", combination of the components "eald", old, with "here", army, or "Aethelwaru", a compound of "aethel", noble, and "waru", defence. More common variations are: Aldersone, Aalderson, Allderson, Aldereson, Aldersonn, Aldersson, Aulderson, Aldrson, Elderson, Aldersen.
The surname Alderson first found in London and Middlesex, where the name meant 'son of the old wise warrior'. The very first recording spelling of the family was shown to be that of Richard Aldersson, dated 1540. It was during the reign of Henry VIII, who was known as "Bluff King Hal", dated 1509-1547.
Some of the people with the name Alderson who arrived in the United States in the 17th century included Ann Alderson, who arrived in Virginia in 1650. Thomas Alderson who settled in Boston Massachusetts in 1679. People with the surname Alderson who landed in the United States in the 18th century included James Alderson, who landed in Virginia in 1705. Simon Alderson, who arrived in North Carolina in 1705. The following century saw much more Alderson surnames arrive. Some of the people with the surname Alderson who arrived in the United States in the 19th century included Thomas Alderson, who landed in New York in 1803. Some of the population with the surname Alderson who arrived in New Zealand in the 19th century included Anthony Alderson, aged 50, a labourer, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Berar" in 1875.