Pool Coat of Arms
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Origin, Meaning, Family History and Pool Coat of Arms and Family Crest
The surname Pool comes from one of three sources. The first source states the name is English and topographical in origin, named for any of the places bearing the name Poole or Pool found in Dorset, Devon, or Gloucestershire. The second source states the name is a medieval Anglicized version of Paul. In this context the name would be patronymic. The third source is a topographical name of Germanic-Dutch origin. Derived from the German Pohl, Puhl, or Pfuhl, it identifies a native of Poland.
Surnames had various sources of origins. Some people may have been identified by their given name plus their occupation while others may have been identified by their given name and one of their parent’s names. There was an endless supply from which surnames were culled, in addition to the use of patriarchal/matriarchal names or reference to the individual occupations, there were things such as defining physical traits, a familiar geographical location or a topographical landmark found near the individuals home or birthplace, the name of the village in which the person lived, and much more. Soon, surnames would come not just to represent an individual but whole families.
The use of surnames was not a common practice in Europe, except among the noble classes, until the mid-sixteenth century. The popularity in the use of surnames developed out of necessity, clarity, and practicality. As populations in European cities grew, it became necessary for clarity’s sake to add a qualifier to a person’s given name to distinguish them from another’s who may share the same common name. For practical purposes, governments found the use of surnames made the recording and tracking of people for census, taxation, and immigration purposes easier, as well.
The task of record keeping was primarily the responsibility of the churches, priories, and government as literacy was often a skill found only among the wealthy, the clergy, and those in government. Even so, there often existed multiple variations of names which was attributed to a number of factors; the origins of the surname, the lack of guidelines which existed for spelling, and the fact that many scribes and clergy members who were charged with record keeping spelled phonetically, among other things. Some of the early variations of this surname include; Pool; Poole; Pooley; Pole; and Pull, among others.
The earliest record of any variation of this surname is that of Mauritius de la Pole which appears in the Devonshire tax rolls from 1176. These rolls, were a series of census and tax records kept by the English Treasury by order of King Henry II, with the oldest dating back 700 years to the 12th century. They hold the distinction of being the oldest consecutive set of records detailing English governance in the United Kingdom.
Some of the first recorded immigrants to America bearing the surname was William Pool who arrived in 1649 and settled in New England. George Pool landed and settled in Virginia in 1650 and David Pool arrived and settled in Virginia in 1655.
There were also immigrants to the British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand bearing the surname Pool. John Pool and his children James, Mathew, Ann, and Jane landed in 1784 and settled in Quebec, Canada. John Pool was one of the early settlers to Australia, arriving in 1847 and settling in Adelaide. Jane Pool was one of the early settlers to New Zealand in 1871 and settled in Auckland.
Worldwide, the highest concentration of people with the surname Pool are found in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. By state, the largest percentile of those with the surname Pool live in Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.
There are many persons of note who bear the surname Pool. Judith Graham Pool was a noted scientist who was a pioneer in researching and developing treatments for hemophiliacs. Pool was born in Queens, New York.
Pool attended the University of Chicago where she completed her undergraduate and her graduate work. She served as an assistant in her department. While completing her dissertation, she taught at Hobart College in Geneva, New York. After receiving her doctorate, she moved to California where she had a research position at Stanford Research Institute. She began work on her studies for hemophilia in 1953 qt Stanford School of Medicine, shortly thereafter, she received a Fulbright research fellowship which took her to Oslo, Norway. Upon her, she returned to Stanford, where in 1956 she was made a senior research associate. In 1970, she was promoted to senior scientist, and in 1972, she was promoted to a full professor.
Pool Coat of Arms Meaning
The four main devices (symbols) in the Pool blazon are the lion, fleur-de-lis, mermaid and leopards’ faces jessant-de-lis. The two main tinctures (colors) are azure and or.
The bright, strong blue color in Heraldry is known in English as azure, and similarly in other European languages – azul in Spanish, azurro in Italian and azur in French. The word has its roots in the Arabic word lazura, also the source of the name of the precious stone lapis lazuli 1A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Azure. Despite this, those heralds who liked to associate colours with jewels chose instead to describe blue as Sapphire. According to Wade, the use of this colour symbolises “Loyalty and Truth” 2The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P36.
The bright yellow colour frequently found in coats of arms is known to heralds as Or, or sometimes simply as Gold.3Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 27. Along with, argent, or silver it forms the two “metals” of heraldry – one of the guidelines of heraldic design is that silver objects should not be placed upon gold fields and vice versa 4A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P85. The yellow colour is often associated with the Sun, and the zodiacal sign of Leo.5Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53.
The art of heraldry would be significantly poorer if we were without the lion in all its forms. Most general works on Heraldry devote at least one chapter solely to this magnificent creature and its multifarious depictions 6A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P172 7Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 63 8Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P140. Some of the earliest known examples of heraldry, dating right back to the knighting of Geoffrey of Anjou in 1127, where he is shown with six such beasts upon his shield 9A Treatise on Heraldry, J. Woodward, W & A.K Johnston, Edinburgh & London, 1896, P45 .The great authority on heraldic symbology, Wade, points out the high place that the lion holds in heraldry, “as the emblem of deathless courage” 10The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P60, a sentiment echoed equally today.
The fleur-de-lys (“flower of the lily”) has a long and noble history and was a symbol associated with the royalty of France even before heraldry became widespread. 11Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 3. The Lily flower is said to represent “Purity, or whiteness of soul”12The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P134 and sometimes associated with the Virgin Mary. The fleur-de-lys is also used as a small “badge”, known as a mark of cadency to show that the holder is the sixth son of the present holder of the arms 13A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P489
The mermaid is depicted exactly as we now picture the mythical creature, and is almost always shown with dishevelled hair and looking into a hand mirror. 14A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Mermaid They tend to more frequent as supporters than being illustrated upon the shield itself. Wade cites Sloane Evans in his belief that the mermaid represents the “Eloquence” of the bearer.