Gardiner Coat of Arms

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Blazons & Genealogy Notes

1) (Himbleton, co. Worcester; granted by Cooke, Clarenceux, 1592, to Richard Gardener, Esq., of that place). Ar. a chev. gu. betw. three pomegranates ppr. leaved vert. Crest—Out of a mural crown or, an armed arm embowed ppr. holding in the hand a flagstaff, thereon a split pennon gu. flowing to the sinister, charged with two staves in saltire, fired gold.
2) (Histon, co. Cambridge; Kokesforth, co. Norfolk; and Shrewsbury). Per fesse ar. and sa. a pale counterchanged three griffins' heads erased of the second. Crest—A griffin’s head erased sa.
3) (Berwick-on-Tweed; granted 24 April, 1580). Sa. a chev. erm. betw. three buglehorns ar. stringed or. Crest—On a book sanguine, clasped and garnished or, a falcon volant of the last.
4) (Calais). Or, on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins' heads erased az. two lions pass. respecting each other ar.
5) (Northall, co. Lincoln). Same Arms, the lions gold. Crest—A Turk’s head ppr. turban or and az.
6) Sa. a chev. betw. three half spades ar.
7) (Thomas Gardener, citizen of London. Visit. 1568). Quarterly, gu. and az. in the second and third quarters a griffin segreant or, holding in the dexter claw a ring gemmed of the last, over all on a bend cotised of the last a leopard's face, holding in the mouth a round buckle betw. two fleurs-de-lis gu. Crest—A leopard pass. ar. pellettee, holding in the dexter paw a pine apple or, stalked and leaved vert.
8) (Wallingham and Bishop’s Norton, co. Lincoln). Or, on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins' heads erased az. two lions combatant ar. Crest—A Saracen's head full faced ppr. erased at the neck gu. wreathed about the temples of the last and az. on his head a cap or.
9) (London). Per chev. ar. and purp. in chief three escallops az. in base a griffin's head erased or, on a chief of the second a cross formee betw. two griffins’ heads erased of the first.
10) (Earl of Blessington, extinct 1829). Motto—Nil desperandum. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, or, a fesse chequy ar. and az. betw. three lions pass. sa.; 2nd and 3rd, or, a griffin pass. az. on a chief sa. three pheons’ heads ar. Crest—An eagle's head erased betw. two wings. Supporters—Dexter, a man in complete armour garnished or, on hit cap three feathers, two ar. and one gu.; sinister, a queen in her royal vestments gu. girded az. over all a mantle purp. doubled erm. her feet bare, hair dishevelled, and ducally crowned or.
11) (Bishop of Winchester; Stephen Gardiner, appointed 1531, deprived 1550, restored 1553, d. 1556). Az. on a cross or, betw. four griffins’ heads erased ar. a cinquefoil pierced gu.
12) (Bishop of Lincoln; John Gardiner, appointed 1695, d. 1705). Or, a buck's head cabossed gu. betw. the attires a mullet of the last.
13) (Rev. Robert Barlow Gardiner, M.A., formerly Vicar of Wadhurst, co. Sussex). Same Arms, with a canton az. thereon a mitre of the first, labelled ar. Crest—A stag's head cabossed ppr. betw. the attires a mullet sa. pierced and pendent from a chain or.
14) (cos. Berks and Buckingham). Gu. a chev. betw. three griffins’ heads erased ar. a chief crenellee or. Crest—A griffin's head erased az. charged with three bends or.
15) (Blandford, co. Dorset). Per fesse embattled az. and purp. on a chev. or, betw. three griffins’ heads erased ar. as many escallops sa. Crest—A griffin's head erased bendy of six az. and purp.
16) (Tollesbury, co. Essex). Ar. a griffin segreant sa. Crest—A griffin pass. reguard. sa.
17) (Ivingsbury, co. Herts). Per pale or and gu. a fesse betw. three hinds pass. counterchanged.
18) (Cudsden, co. Oxford; Sir Thomas GaRdiner, Knt., Solicitor-General to Charles I.; d. Oct. 1652). Per pale gu. and or, a fesse betw. three hinds tripping counterchanged.
19) (Thundridgbury, co. Herts). Per pale or and gu. on a fesse betw. three hinds pass, as many lozenges all counterchanged. Crest—Two halberts in pale, enwrapped round by a snake ppr.
20) (London). Per pale or and gu. a fesse betw. three hinds trippant all counterchanged. Crest—A Saracen's head sidefaced ppr. erased at the shoulders gu. wreathed round the temples ar. and of the second.
21) (Wigan, co. Lancaster). Or, on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins’ heads erased az. two lions counter pass, of the field.
22) (London). Same Arms. Crest—A man’s head ppr. thereon a cap gu. turned up ar. crined and bearded sa.
23) (Coombe Lodge, co. Oxford). Quarterly, 1st and 4th, same Arms, for Gardiner; 2nd and 3rd, gu. on a cross or, five mullets sa., for Boddam. Crest—A griffin's head erased. Motto—Deo non fortunae.
24) (Lord Mayor of London, 1478). Purp. on a chev. ar. three escallops az. on a chief embattled of the third a cross potent or, betw. two griffins' heads erased of the second.
25) (London, and Beccles, co. Norfolk). Gu. a chev. betw. three tigers’ heads erased or. Crest—A rhinoceros pass. ar.
26) (certified at the College of Arms, London, May, 1779). Motto—Persevere. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, or, a griffin pass, with wings endorsed az. on a chief sa. three pheons ar.; 2nd and 3rd, gu. a fesse chequy ar. and az. betw. three lions ramp. or. Crest—A griffin’s head or, gorged with a chaplet of laurel vert betw. two wings expanded az.
27) (co. Oxford, 1578). Az. a chev. erm. betw. three griffins' heads erased ar. (another, or). Crest—A stork ppr. Another Crest—A griffin sejant, resting his dexter foot on a book sa.
28) (Richard Gardiner, D.D., and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, d. 20 Dec. 1670). Sa. a chev. erm. betw. two griffins’ heads erased in chief and a cross formee in base or.
29) (Letherhead, co. Surrey). Sa. a chev. betw. three buglehorns stringed ar. on a pile in chief of the second a covered cup gu. a bordure or, charged with eight pellets. Crest—Out of a ducal coronet or, a goat's head gu. attired gold.
30) (Haling and Peckham, co. Surrey). Az. a griffin pass. or.
31) (temp. Henry VIII.). Per fesse ar. and sa. a pale and three goats’ heads erased all counterchanged.
32) (Reg. Ulster’s Office, to Sir Robert Gabdiner, Chief Justice of the King’s Bench, 1586-1604). Gu. a chev. betw. three heraldic tigers' heads erased or.
33) (Dublin; granted by Carney, Ulster, 1683, to William Gardiner, of that city, merchant). Or, a griffin pass, wings expanded az. on a chief sa. three pheons points down ar. Crest—A griffin’s head couped or, betw. two wings az. gorged with a chaplet vert. Motto—Honor rewards industry.
34) (Madras, 1789). Motto—Omnia superat virtus. Ar. on a fret gu. a rose in every interstice of the second, barbed vert, betw. four hearts or, a bordure az. Crest—Out of a mural crown or, seven battle axes ppr. one in fess and the rest in bend dexter and bend sinister.
35) (King’s Brompton, co. Somerset, High Sheriff of that co. in 1737). Gu. a plain fesse with cotises engr. ar betw. four roses, three in chief and one in base of the last Crest—A stag ppr. the dexter foreleg supporting an scutcheon ar. charged with four lozenges conjoined in fesse gu. betw. two barrulets sa.
36) (Baron Gardner). Motto—Valet anchora virtus. Or, on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins' heads erased, az. an anchor erect betw. two lions guard, counter-pass, of the field. Crest—A demi griffin az. collared and lined, and supporting in the claws an anchor or. Supporters—Two griffins, wings elevated az. beaked, membered, and gorged with a naval coronet or, each resting the interior hind foot on an anchor, with cable sa.
37) (Chatteris House, Isle of Ely, co. Cambridge). Motto—Fide et amore. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, ar. on a saltire betw. three griffins' heads erased, one in chief, two in fesse sa. and a woolpack in base az. another saltire or, for Gardner; 2nd and 3rd, az. on a chev. or, betw. two boars’ heads erased in chief and a padlock in base ar. a lozenge gu. with two keys chevronwise sa., for Dunn. Crests—1st, Gardner: A griffin’s head erased ar. surmounted by two branches of laurel in saltire ppr.; 2nd, Dunn: Two swords in saltire, the points upwards ppr. pommels and hilts or, tied with a riband vert pendent therefrom a key sa.
38) (Rev. Laurence Gardner, D.D., Sansaw, Shrewsbury). Per fesse ar. and sa. a pale counterchanged three griffins’ heads erased of the second. Crest—A griffin’s head erased sa.
39) (cos. Lincoln and Salop). Same Arms. Crest—An elephant's head erm. eared sa. armed or.
40) (Lord Mayor of London; and of Suffolk). Per fesse or and sa. a pale counterchanged, and three griffins’ heads erased of the second.
41) (Tunbridge Wells, co. Kent). Az. on a chev. betw. three griffins’ heads erased ar. as many martlets sa. Crest—A griffin’s head erased gorged with a mural coronet.
42) (co. Middlesex). Sa. a chev. betw. three buglehorns stringed ar. Crest—A reindeer’s head ar. attired or.
43) (Kirkton, co. Lincoln). Az. a chev. betw. three buglehorns ar.
44) (co. Lincoln, and Wallbearswick, co. Suffolk). Quarterly, ar. and sa. in the 2nd and 3rd quarters a griffin’s head erased or. Crest—An elephant’s head couped erm.
45) (Wallingham and Bishop’s Norton, co. Lincoln). Or, on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins' heads erased az. two lions combatant ar. Crest—A Saracen's head full faced ppr. erased at the neck gu. wreathed about the temples of the last and az. on his head a cap or.
46) (London). Per chev. ar. and purp. in chief three escallops az. in base a griffin's head erased or, on a chief of the second a cross formee betw. two griffins’ heads erased of the first.
47) (co. Worcester). Per chev. az. and gu. on a chev. betw. three lions' heads erased ar. as many escallops sa.
48) (London). Gu. on a bend cotised or, a leopard’s face betw. two fleurs-de-lis of the first.
49) (co. Somerset). Sa. a chev. betw. three spades ar.
50) (Stoke-Ash, co. Suffolk). Ar. on a chev. gu. betw. three griffins' heads erased az. two lions ramp. or.
51) (co. Herts; Richard Gardner, Sergeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII., his brother, William Gardner, of Bermond­sey Street, d. 1597; sons of William Gardner, co. Herts. Visit. London). Az. a griffin pass. or. Crest—On a ducal coronet or, a lion pass. guard. ar. (another, a demi unicorn erased ar. crowned and horned or, crined sa.).
52) (Bermondsey, co. Surrey). Same Arms. Crest—A demi unicorn erased or, crined and armed sa. ducally crowned or. Another Crest—On a ducal coronet or, a lion pass. guard. ar.
53) Or, a griffin pass. az. on a chief sa. three pheons ar. Crest—A griffin’s head couped or, gorged with a chaplet vert betw. two wings az.
54) Vert a griffin pass, and a chief or.
55) Az. a griffin pass. or. Crest—A demi unicorn or, maned sa. crowned ar. horned gold.
56) (Ruspar, co. Sussex. Visit. 1634). Az. on a chev. ar. betw. three griffins’ heads erased or, as many martlets sa.
57) Per fesse gu. and ar. six pales wavy counterchanged.
58) Per pale or and gu. on a fesse betw. three hinds two lozenges all counterchanged.
59) Ar. a griffin’s head erased sa.
60) (granted to Robert Panting, Esq., upon his assuming, by royal licence, the name of Gardner). Per fesse ar. and sa. a pale counterchanged three gryphons’ heads erased of the second.
61) Gu. a bend vair double cotised or.
62) (Torwoodhead, co. Stirling). Motto—In virtute et fortuna. Gu. on a fret of four pieces gu. as many hearts az. and in every interstice a rose of the second. Crest—A griffin’s head erased ppr.
63) (Edinburgh, 1784). Motto—Virtute et fortuna. Same Arms, a crescent or, in chief for diff. Crest—A griffin’s head erased ppr. charged with a crescent or.
64) (Beechfield, Croxteth Road, Liverpool, and Fluke Hall, Fleetwood, co. Lancaster; Richard Cardwell Gardner, Esq., J.P., Alderman of Liverpool for 25 years, and Mayor, 1862-3, vi. 1828, the dau. and heiress of John Sykes, Esq., of Fluke Hall, and d. 29 Dec. 1882, leaving John Sykes Gardner, six other sons, and three daus.). Per fesse gu. and or, a pale three griffins' heads erased (two and one) and as many roses (one and two), all counterchanged, an escutcheon of pretence for Sykes, viz., sa. a fountain ppr. betw. three molehills or. Crest—In front of two half spades in saltire a griffin's head erased all ppr. Motto—Animo et fide.

Origin, Meaning, Family History and Gardiner Coat of Arms and Family Crest

Meaning, Origin, Etymology

The Gardiner surname is of early medieval French origins, derived from the Old French word “gardinier”.  It is also an occupational surname that derives from the word “gardin” with a meaning of “little clearing” and the Germanic word gard, which is an enclosure cleared for agriculture.  It was introduced into England shortly after the Norman Conquest in 1066. The role of a gardener in medieval times was a person that grew medicinal herbs and fruits and vegetables and they were associated with the monasteries of the time.  In the medieval times the monastery was a house of learning where advances in farming occurred. The surname of Gardiner is one of the earliest surnames recorded in the pipe rolls of the County of Rutland in 1199 during the reign of King John (1199-1216).  Camden says, “Wise was the man that told my Lord Bishop (Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester) that his name was not Gardener as the English pronounce it, but Gardiner, with the French accent, and therefore a gentleman.” It is most characteristically found in the midland counties of England, mostly represented in Essex, Lancashire and Warwickshire Counties.

Spelling Variations

Gardener, Garner, Gardner, Gainer, Garnier, Gardinier

Popularity & Geographic Distribution

The last name Gardiner ranks 8,866th in popularity worldwide as of the 2014 Census and approximately 65,041 people carry the Gardiner surname worldwide. The name ranks particularly high in the following six states:  California, New York, Maryland, Texas, Florida, and Utah. It ranks highest in the following countries: England (16,260), United States (15,528), Australia (10,545), Canada (6,660), Scotland (3,750), New Zealand (2,888)

Early Bearers of Surname

  • Geoffrey le Gardiner, Oxfordshire, 1273. Hundred Rolls.
  • Gilbert de Ilkeley, 9 Edward III: Freemen of York.
  • John atte Gardyne, listed in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex in 1296
  • Ralph le Gardener, Huntingdonshire, ibid.
  • Richard le Gardiner, Cambridgeshire, ibid.
  • Thomas Garchiner, 1379: ibid.
  • Thomas Gardiner, 1379: Poll Tax of Yorkshire.
  • Walter le Gardiner listed in the Subsidy Rolls for London in 1292.
  • William Gardin, listed in the Curia Regis Rolls of Huntingdon in 1218
  • William Gardinar, Lancashire, Henry III-Edward I: Testa de Nevill, sive Liber Feodorum, temp. Henry III-Edward I.
  • William le Gardener, Close Rolls, 8 Edward I.
  • William le Gardiner, or Gardener, Lincolnshire, ibid.
  • William le Gardinier in county Rutland in 1199

History, Genealogy & Ancestry

GARDINER OF COOMBE LODGE.

Gardiner, Charles Lawrence Weare, Esq. of Coombe Lodge County Oxford, D.L., born 15 November 1849.

Lineage ~ Henry Gardiner, of Castle Coombe, Wilts son and heir, by Joan his wife, of Henry Gardiner, of Castle Coombe, Wilts, who was born 1596; and died 21 October 1669; married 5 Oct. 1671, Elizabeth Woodman, and by her (who died 26 July, 1705) had issue.  Mr. Gardiner died Jan. 1726. His younger son, John Gardiner, Esq. of Tythe Horton, Wilts, born 9 Sept. 1684; died 1754, having had, by Catherine his wife (who died 19 May 1744), an eldest son, Samuel Gardiner, Esq. of Woodford, Essex, born 1724; married 1 March 1750, June Anne Parkinson of London; and died 4 Jan. 1794, having had by her (who died 1781) an elder son, Samuel Gardiner, Esq. of Coombe Lodge, County Oxford, born 13 Sept 1755; married 14 Nov 1792, Mary daughter and heir of Charles Boddam, Esq. of Capel house, Bull’s Cross, Enfield, and niece of Governor Boddam, of Bombay, and by her (who died 12 Jan. 1813) had issue, 1) Charles Wrighte, his heir  2) Rawson Boddam, born 8 Oct 1787; married 17 March 1828, Margaret, daughter of William Baring Gould, Esq. of Lew Trenchard, Devon, and by her (who died 1853) had issue, Samuel, Rawson and Charles Baring. 3) Allen Francis, Capt. R.N., born 28 June 1794; married 1st 1 July 1823, Julia Susannah, daughter of John Reade, Esq. of Ipsden House, Oxon; and 2ndly, Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. William Marsh, of Mainstone, Kent, and had issue by the former. 4) Jane, married 29 Aug 1805, Rev. Edward Vansittart (first cousin of Nicholas, Lord Bexley), sho afterwards changed his name to Neale. She died 13 Aug. 1806. 5) Emma, married 28 July 1818, Rev. George Hunt, of Buckhurst House, Berks, and Barmingham, Suffolk.  Mr. Gardiner died 10 June 1827, and was succeeded by his son, Charles Wrighte Gardiner, Esq. of Coombe Lodge, born 13 Nov. 1783; married 1 May 1810, Mary Anne, daughter of Thomas Chase, Esq. E.I.Co.’s Civil Service, Madras, and by her (who died 8 Aug 1856) had issue, 1) Samuel Weare, of Coombe Lodge. 2) Mary Anne Amelia, died 9 Nov 1868. 3) Laura Emma, married 14 April 1841, Sir William Berkeley Call. 3rd Bart. of Whiteford. Mr. Gardiner, who was for many years Military Secretary to the E.I.Co.,’s Government at Caleutta, under the Marquess of Hastings, died at Leghorn 4 July 1837, and was succeeded by his son, Samuel Weare Gardiner, Esq. of Coombe Lodge, J.P. and D.L. born 2 Feb. 1821; High Sheriff 1849; married 10 Aug. 1848, Isabella Mallet, 2nd daughter of Sir Lawrence Vaughan Palk, 3rd Bart. of Haldon House, Exeter, Devon, and had issue, 1) Charles Lawrence Weare, now of Coombe Lodge.  2) Isabella Laura Elizabeth, married 18 April 1877, Sir Thomas Johnston Dancer, 7th Bart. of Modreeny House, County Tipperary. He died 13 March 1866.

  • Arms ~ Quarterly; 1st and 4th, or, on a chevron gu. between three griffins heads crased az. two lions counter passant of the field, for Gardiner; 2nd and 3rd, gu, on a cross or, five mullets sa., for Boddam. Crest ~ A griffins head erased.
  • Motto ~ Deo non fortunae
  • Seats ~ Coombe Lodge, Whitchurch, Reading; and the Temple, Goring

HENRY LYNEDOCH GARDINER

General Henry Lynedoch Gardiner, Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Justice of the Peace for the County  of Middlesex. Born 1820, being the son of General Sir Robert Gardiner, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order: was created Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, 1887.  Clubs Travellers’, United Service. Married, 1849, Frances, daughter of the late Francis Newdigate, by his wife Barbara, commonly known as Lady Barbara, daughter of the Right Honourable Sir George Legge, third Earl of Dartmouth, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. Postal address Thatched House Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey.

GARDNER OF CONINGTON.

Gardner, Philip Thomas, Esq. of Conington, County Cambridge, late 14th regt. born 30 Dec. 1847; married 10 Aug. 1876, Emily Elizabeth, 3rd daughter of John Forbes Calland, Esq. of Upper Forest County Glamorgan and has issue, Emily Mildred, born 11 Feb. 1878.

Lineage ~ Sir Robert Cotton, 1st bart. of Conington, County Cambridge, a descendant of the ancient family of Cotton, County Chester, whose ancestor William Cotton (married Mary, heiress of the Wesenhams), was slain at the battle of St. Albans, A.D. 1455, was the founder of the famous “Cottanian Library.”  He was knighted by James I in 1603, and created a Baronet in 1611, married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William Borcas, Esq. of Thedingworth, County Leicester, and died 1631, when he was succeeded by his son and heir, Sir Thomas Cotton, 2nd bart. of Conington, M.P. County Huntingdon, married 1st Margaret, daughter of William Lord Howard, of Naworth, by whom he had Sir John, the 3rd bart, and 2ndly, Alice, daughter and sole heiress of Sir John Constable, Knight, of Dromondby, County York, by whom he had 1) Thomas died unmarried aged 17.  2) Robert (Sir), Knight of Hatley St. George, M.P. for Cambridge, married Gertrude, daughter of Sir William Morice, Bart., of Werington and had an only daughter Alice married Robert Trefusis, Esq. of Trefusis. 3) Philip (Sir), of whom herafter. 4) William, of Cotton Hall, County Chester, married Mary daughter of Rev. Robert Pulleyn, of Thurleston, County Leicester, and had, with four daughters, a son, Thomas heir to his uncle Sir Philip. Sir Thomas died 13 May 1662. His fourth son, Sir Philip Cotton, Knight of Conington, born 1647; married Frances, daughter of Sir Toby Tyrell, 3rd bart. of Thornton, and widow of Sir John Hewet, 2nd bart. of Headley Hall, but died without issue., and bequeathed his estates to his nephew, Thomas Cotton, Esq. of Conington, married Anne, daughter and heiress of Thomas Andrews (grandson and heir of Sir Thomas Andrews, Knight and citizen of London), and left an only daughter and heiress, Frances Cotton, of Conington, married Dingley Ascham, Esq., High Sheriff County Huntingdon 1708, and was succeeded by his son, Dingley Ascham, Esq. of Conington, whose daughter Harriett Ascham, of Conington, married Sir Thomas Hatton, 8th bart. of Long Statnton, and died 1795, having had issue, Sir John 9th bart, died without issue 1811; Sir Thomas Dingley, 10 and last bart; and a daugther Harriett Hatton, of Conington , married Rev. Philip Thomas Gardner, D.D. of Brynadda, County Merioneth, a descendant of Lloyd of Brynadda, and had, with a daughter Margaret, a son, Philip Thomas Gardner, Esq. of Conington, married Athalia Wallace and had issue 1) Philip Thomas his heir 2) Christopher Hatton born 1824; married Emily, widow of Col. Ord  3) Harriett Ann, married 1846, John Forbes Calland, Esq of Upper Forest, County Glamorgan 4) Athalia died unmarried 5) Georgiana, married Frederick Calland, Esq. of Bentworth Priors, Dorking. Mr. Gardner died 1838 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Philip Thomas Gardner, Esq. of Conington, born 1822; married 1846, Mary Wright, daughter of William Mathew Hopkins, Esq. of Cardiff, M.D., and died 1868, leaving issue 1) Philip Thomas now of Conington 2) Mary Frances, deceased 3) Florence.

  • Arms ~ Az., a chevron erm. between three griffins’ heads erased arg. quartering Hatton and Ascham.
  • Crest ~ A Saracen’s head, wreathed and couped at the shoulders ppr.
  • Seat ~ Conington Hall, County Cambridge

Early American Immigration and New World Settlers

  • Christian Gardiner, who settled in South Carolina in 1753 with his four children
  • Christopher Gardiner, who settled in New England in 1630
  • Edmd Gardiner, who landed in Virginia in 1700
  • Head Gardiner, who arrived in Georgia in 1738
  • Lion Gardiner, who landed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1635
  • Lyon Gardiner who settled in Saybrook, Long Island, after sailing in his 25 ton ketch called “Bachelor” in 1633. He purchased the island from the Indians, and this famous island was first known as Gardiner’s Island. His daughter, Mary, was the first white person born on Long Island
  • Lyon Gardiner, aged 36, who arrived in New England in 1635
  • Michael Gardiner, aged 35, who arrived in New York in 1799
  • Peter Gardiner, who arrived in Maryland in 1747
  • Sir Christopher Gardiner, who arrived in New England in 1630

Mottoes

  • Artibus haud armis. By arts, not arms.
  • Confide. Be confident.
  • Deo non fortune. To God not fortune.
  • Fide et amorc. By fidelity and love.
  • In ferrum libertate ruebant. Through liberty they rushed to the sword.
  • Lahore et virtute. By industry and virtue.
  • N il desperandum. Never despair.
  • Omnia superat virtus. Virtue conquers all.
  • Persevere.
  • Valet anchora virtus. Virtue our anchor is strong.
  • Virtuti et fortunes. To virtue and fortune.

Grantees

  • COOPER to Gardiner, of Thundridge Burv, co. Hertf., and Thurgarton Priory, CO. Nottingham, 182 . ., Vol. XXXIV, fol. 47 ; 183 . ., Vol. XXXIX,  fol. 342.
  • Gardiner after Coopi-.r, . . . ., of Thnnilridfre Bury, co. Hertf., and Tluirgarton Priory, co. Notriuglmni, 182 . ., Vol. XXXIV, fol. 47. „ after Cooper, of co. Ilertf., and Nottingham, 183 . ., Vol. XXXIX, fol. 342.
  • Gardiner after Wiialley, John, of co. Lane., 1 779, Vol. XIV, fol. 181. (Certified to William Gardiner, Esq., May 1779, Berry and Burke.)„ after Smytiie, laic Wiialley, . . . ., Bart., of co. Lane, 1798, Vol. XX, fols. 11 aud 12.
  • Gardiner, Bart., of Roclie Court, Hainpsb. [? Took the uamc of S.mythe between Wiialley anil Ganliner], 1787, Vol. XVI, fol. 277. „ Lieut.-Col., 181 . ., Vol. XXVIII, fol. 240.  , , Stiulent of Jesus Coll., Camb., 181 . ., Vol. XXIX, fol. 420.
  • Gardiner, Gen. Sir Robert William, G.C.B. [21 June 18.j9], 18 . . ., Vol. LIII, fols. 229 and 231.
  • Gardiner, John (s. of John), of Brailsford, co. Derby, and co. Somerset, Capt. 5th Dragoons, and to descendants of his uncle Robert. {See Webber, 188 . ., Vol. LXI, fol. 14), 1877, Vol. LX, fol. 30.
  • Gardiner, Robert and Frederick, sons of (Robert Barlow), of Yardley, Hastiugsciim-Deuton, co. Northampton, Vicar of Wadhurst, co. Sussex, 1 Mar. 1841, Vol. XLV, fol. 83.

Notables

  • Abraham H. Gardiner, American politician, Member of New York State Assembly from Suffolk County 1st District, 1853
  • Addison Gardiner (1797–1883), New York Lieutenant Governor and Chief Judge
  • Ainsley Gardiner, film producer from New Zealand
  • Albert Gardiner, Australian politician
  • Alfred George Gardiner (1865–1946), English journalist and essayist
  • Allen Francis Gardiner (1794–1851), English missionary
  • Anthony W. Gardiner (1820–1885), President of Liberia
  • Antoinette Avril Gardiner (born 1941), known as Princess Muna al-Hussein, second wife of King Hussein of Jordan
  • Asa Bird Gardiner (1839–1919), American lawyer and politician
  • Barry Gardiner (born 1957), Scottish politician
  • Bernard Gardiner (c. 1668–1726), English academic administrator
  • Boris Gardiner (born 1943), Jamaican reggae musician
  • Byron J. Gardiner, American politician, Prohibition Candidate for Connecticut State House of Representatives from Stonington, 1894, 1904, 1906
  • H. Gardiner, American politician, Representative from Nevada at-large, 1892
  • Charles Gardiner (1720–1769), Irish politician and landowner
  • Charles Gardiner, 1st Earl of Blessington (1782–1829), socialite
  • Charles L. Gardiner, American politician, Member of Pennsylvania State House of Representatives from Wayne County, 1883-84
  • Charlie Gardiner (ice hockey player) (1904–1934), Scottish-born Canadian ice hockey player
  • Chittampalam Abraham Gardiner, Sri Lankan businessman and prominent Roman Catholic activist
  • Chris Gardiner (born 1986), Scottish footballer
  • Dale F. Gardiner, American Democrat politician, Mayor of Riverton, Utah, 1985-89; Candidate for U.S. Representative from Utah 3rd District, 1986
  • David Gardiner (1784-1844), American politician, Member of New York State Senate 1st District, 1824-27
  • Dirck Gardiner, American politician, Member of New York State Assembly from Columbia County, 1793-94, 1800-01
  • Watson Gardiner, American Democrat politician, Candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 30th District, 1926, 1928
  • Watson Gardiner, American politician, Member of New York State Assembly from Montgomery County, 1894-95
  • Frank Gardiner, Scottish-born Australian bushranger
  • Fred Gardiner, Toronto politician
  • George Gardiner (settler) (c 1610) of Rhode Island
  • George Gardiner (soldier) (1821–1891), Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Gerald Gardiner, Baron Gardiner (1900–1990), Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom
  • Harry Gardiner (born 1871), American buildings climber
  • Harry Gardiner (footballer), Scottish footballer
  • Henry Balfour Gardiner (1877–1950), English composer
  • Herb Gardiner (1891–1972), Canadian ice hockey player
  • Ian Gardiner (disambiguation), several people
  • Jake Gardiner, Canadian hockey player
  • James Gardiner (British Army officer) (1688–1745), Scottish soldier
  • James Garfield Gardiner (1883–1962), Canadian politician
  • James Henry Gardiner, early Australian Rules Footballer
  • James McDonald Gardiner, (1857–1925), American architect, educator and lay missionary to Japan
  • James Terry Gardiner (1842–1912), American surveyor
  • Jane Gardiner, schoolmistress, grammarian
  • John Gardiner (Australia) (1873–1878), Irish-born settler in Australia
  • John Gardiner (businessman) (born 1936), British businessman.
  • John Reynolds Gardiner, American novelist
  • John Sylvester John Gardiner (1765–1830), Welsh-born American clergyman
  • Joseph Gardiner (1886–1965), Australian politician
  • Les Gardiner (Scottish footballer) (born 1918)
  • Lion Gardiner (1599–1663), English settler in New York
  • Luke Gardiner (1690–1755), Irish politician
  • Luke Gardiner, 1st Viscount Mountjoy (1745–1798), Irish politician and property developer
  • Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington (1789–1849), Irish writer
  • Michael Gardiner, Australian rules footballer
  • Muriel Gardiner, American psychiatrist
  • Nevile Gardiner (1902–1954), English diplomat
  • Pauline Gardiner, New Zealand politician
  • Peter Gardiner, Swedish actor and dancer
  • Reginald Gardiner (1903–1980), English actor
  • Richard Gardiner, Lord Mayor of London in the fifteenth century
  • Ricky Gardiner, Scottish musician
  • Robert Gardiner (disambiguation), several people
  • Samuel Rawson Gardiner (1829–1902), English historian
  • Silvester Gardiner (1707–1786), American physician and land developer
  • Simon Gardiner (born 1975), Prominent Scouser and world record neck size
  • Sir Alan Gardiner (1879–1963), English Egyptologist
  • Sir George Gardiner (politician) (1935–2002), English politician
  • Sir John Eliot Gardiner (born 1943), English conductor
  • Stephen Gardiner (c. 1493–1555), English Lord Chancellor and bishop
  • Steven Gardiner (born 1995), Bahamian track and field sprinter
  • Susan Gardiner (born 1980), Canadian water polo player
  • Sylvester Gardiner (1708-1786), American colonial physician and landowner
  • Thomas A. Gardiner (1832–1881), New York politician
  • William Guthrie Gardiner, ship owner and philanthropist
  • Wrey Gardiner (1901–1981), English writer, poet, editor and publisher

American Revolution Veterans

  • Abijah Gardiner enlisted 1 Sep 1779 in Connecticut
  • Abijah Gardiner enlisted 4 Aug 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Alexander Gardiner enlisted Dec 1778 in Massachusetts, Rank of Private
  • Alexander Gardiner enlisted in Massachusetts, Rank of Private
  • Amos Gardiner enlisted 4 Feb 1778 in Rhode Island, Rank of Private
  • Andrew Gardiner enlisted 18 May 1779 in New York, Rank of Fife Major
  • Andrew Gardiner enlisted 19 Jan 1778 in New York, Rank of Fife Major
  • Andrew Gardiner enlisted 3 Oct 1777 in New York, Rank of Fife Major
  • Andrew Gardiner enlisted 7 Dec 1777 in New York, Rank of Fife Major
  • Andrew Gardiner enlisted in New York
  • Barind Gardiner enlisted 7 Aug 1778, Rank of Matross
  • Benjn Gardiner enlisted 1 Aug 1778, in Massachusetts, Rank of 1st Lieutenant
  • Benoni Gardiner enlisted 2 Jan 1779, Rank of Matross
  • Benoni Gardiner enlisted 7 Jul 1778, Rank of Matross
  • Benoni Gardiner enlisted in New York, Rank of MATRS
  • Chesin Gardiner enlisted May 1778 in Delaware
  • Christ Gardiner enlisted Dec 1777 in Delaware
  • Christn Gardiner enlisted Apr 1778 in Delaware
  • Cors Gardiner enlisted Dec 1778 in New Jersey, Rank of Corporal
  • David Gardiner enlisted 12 Sep 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • David Gardiner enlisted 4 Jan 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • David Gardiner enlisted 5 Jan 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • George Gardiner enlisted 30 Jul 1779, Rank of Private
  • Geregreen Gardiner enlisted 4 Aug 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Geregreen Gardiner enlisted 4 Dec 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Gilbert Gardiner enlisted 31 Mar 1779 in New York, Rank of Private
  • Harculas Gardiner enlisted 20 Nov 1778 in Rhode Island, Rank of Private
  • Harculas Gardiner enlisted 31 Mar 1779 in New York, Rank of Private
  • Harculer Gardiner enlisted Jul 1778 in Rhode Island, Rank of Private
  • James Gardiner enisted 3 Oct 1776 in New York
  • James Gardiner enlisted 1776 in Connecticut
  • Jas Gardiner enlisted 12 Jun 1778 in New Jersey, Rank of Private
  • Jeremiah Gardiner enlisted 28 Jun 1775 in New York
  • Jeremiah Gardiner enlisted 31 Aug 1776 in New York, Rank of Private
  • Jeremiah Gardiner enlisted 31 Dec 1775 in New York
  • John Gardiner enlisted 1776 in Connecticut, Rank of Lieutenant
  • John Gardiner enlisted 26 Oct 1777, Rank of Corporal
  • John Gardiner enlisted 6 Jan 1778, Rank of Matross
  • John Gardiner enlisted Oct 1777, Rank of Mabrosses
  • Joseph Gardiner enlisted 17 May 1777 in Massachusetts, Rank of Private
  • Matthew Gardiner enlisted 4 Dec 1778, Rank of Private
  • Mumford Gardiner enlisted 1 Sep 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Nathan Gardiner enlisted in Massachusetts, Rank of Private
  • Nicholus Gardiner enlisted 4 Dec 1778, Rank of Private
  • Peregrine Gardiner enlsited 1 Sep 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Sergeant
  • Perigreen Gardiner enlisted 2 Aug 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Perigreen Gardiner enlisted 23 Jul 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Perigrine Gardiner enlisted in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Pern Gardiner enlisted 18 Feb 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Pern Gardiner enlisted 5 Jan 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Perr Gardiner enlisted 1 Apr 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Perregner Gardiner enlisted 8 May 1778 in Connecticut
  • Perregreen Gardiner enlisted 1 Sep 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Perrigreen Gardiner enlisted 12 Sep 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Prince Gardiner enlisted 20 Nov 1778 in Rhode Island, Rank of Private
  • Prince Gardiner enlisted 5 Jan 1779 in Rhode Island, Rank of Private
  • Richard Gardiner enlisted 21 Jan 1779 in Maryland, Rank of Sergeant
  • Richard Gardiner enlisted in Maryland, Rank of Colonel
  • Samuel Gardiner enlisted 12 Dec 1779 in New York, Rank of Private
  • Sharks Gardiner enlisted in Rhode Island
  • Shereman Gardiner enlisted Jul 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • Sherman Gardiner enlisted Oct 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Sylvester Gardiner enlisted 1777 in Rhode Island
  • Thomas Gardiner Esq enlisted 1775 in Massachusetts, Rank of Colonel
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted 2 May 1778 in New Hampshire, Rank of Private
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted 22 Jul 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Apr 1778 in New Jersey
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Aug 1777 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Aug 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Dec 1777 in Virginia, Rank of Private
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Feb 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Captain
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Feb 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Jan 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Corporal
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Jun 1778 in New Jersey
  • Thomas Gardiner enlisted Oct 1778 in Connecticut, Rank of Private
  • Thos Gardiner enlisted 1 Jan 1779 in New Hampshire, Rank of Private
  • William Gardiner enlisted 15 Nov 1779 in Massachusetts
  • William Gardiner enlisted 5 Jan 1779 in Connecticut, Rank of Private

Civil War Veterans

  • Abner Gardiner born 1825 in Yates, New York
  • Albert C. Gardiner born 1824 in Rhode Island
  • Albert G. Gardiner born 1820 in Meigs, Ohio
  • Aldrich B. Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • Alfred G. Gardiner born 1822 in Rhode Island
  • Alfred Gardiner born 1819 in District of Columbia
  • Andrew Gardiner born 1825 in Missouri
  • Archibald Gardiner born 1823 in New York
  • Arnold Gardiner born 1825 in Rhode Island
  • Asel Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • Augustus N. Gardiner born 1826 in Rensselaer, New York
  • Benjamin C. Gardiner born 1820 in Rhode Island
  • Benjamin G. Gardiner born 1821 in Rhode Island
  • Benoni E. Gardiner born 1821 in Rhode Island
  • Charles A. Gardiner born 1826 in Massachusetts
  • Charles Gardiner born 1819 in Rhode Island
  • Charles H. Gardiner born 1825 in Liv, New York
  • Chas A. Gardiner born 1824 in New York
  • Chris Gardiner born 1822 in Illinois
  • D.B. Gardiner born 1824 in New York
  • Dand D. Gardiner born 1824 in New York
  • Daniel C. Gardiner born 1823 in Illinois
  • Daniel Gardiner born 1825 in New York
  • Dudley B. Gardiner born 1824 in Maine
  • Floyd Gardiner born 1823 in New York
  • Francis Gardiner born 1819 in Jefferson, Iowa
  • George Gardiner born 1822 in New York
  • George Gardiner born 1823 in Pennsylvania
  • George H. Gardiner born 1825 in Rhode Island
  • George M. Gardiner born 1823 in Ohio
  • George W. Gardiner born 1820 in Rhode Island
  • Hawey T. Gardiner born 1825 in Gentry, Missouri
  • Henry D. Gardiner born 1819 in Massachusetts
  • Henry H. Gardiner born 1820 in Rhode Island
  • Henry H. Gardiner born 1825 in Rhode Island
  • Henry R. Gardiner born 1820 in Connecticut
  • Henry W. Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • Horatis Gardiner born 1819 in New York
  • Howard C. Gardiner born 1826 in Wisconsin
  • Isiah Gardiner born 1822 in Maine
  • James D. Gardiner born 1820 in Illinois
  • James Gardiner born 1819 in Missouri
  • James Gardiner born 1823 in Pennsylvania
  • James L. Gardiner born 1823 in Putnam, Indiana
  • Jas. W. Gardiner born 1826 in Beaver, Pennsylvania
  • Jaspn Gardiner born 1825 in Preble, Ohio
  • Jeremiah Gardiner born 1826 in Maine
  • Jocob M. Gardiner born 1826 in New York
  • John Gardiner born 1819 in Rhode Island
  • John Gardiner born 1820 in Kentucky
  • John Gardiner born 1823 in New York
  • John Gardiner born 1824 in Butler, Pennsylvania
  • John Gardiner born 1824 in New York
  • John W. Gardiner born 1806 in New York
  • John W. Gardiner born 1819 in Gloucester, New Jersey
  • Marshal Gardiner born 1820 in Minnesota
  • Martin L. Gardiner born 1825 in Connecticut
  • Micajah Gardiner born 1820 in Camden, New Jersey
  • Nicholas B. Gardiner born 1820 in Rhode Island
  • Oscar Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • Robert Gardiner born 1825 in New York
  • Simon B. Gardiner born 1826 in Pennsylvania
  • Solomon Gardiner born 1822 in Jasper, Iowa
  • Stephen A. Gardiner born 1823 in Rhode Island
  • Stephen C. Gardiner born 1820 in Connecticut
  • Stephen W. Gardiner born 1823 in Rhode Island
  • Syeranns Gardiner born 1822 in Jefferson, Iowa
  • Thomas Gardiner born 1819 in New York
  • Thomas Gardiner born 1823 in New York
  • Thomas Gardiner born 1825 in Maryland
  • Thomas M. Gardiner born 1821 in Pennslvania
  • Thos Gardiner born 1823 in Missouri
  • Varnum W. Gardiner Jr. born 1822 in Rhode Island
  • Wail Gardiner born 1825 in Connecticut
  • Warren Gardiner born 1826 in New York
  • Willett Gardiner born 1821 in Rhode Island
  • William C. Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • William Gardiner born 1819 in Delaware
  • William Gardiner born 1824 in Maine
  • William Gardiner born 1825 in Illinois
  • William Gardiner born 1826 in Gloucester, New Jersey
  • William J. Gardiner born 1822 Peoria, Illinois
  • William M. Gardiner born 1820 in Rhode Island
  • William M. Gardiner born 1826 in Rhode Island
  • William R. Gardiner born 1822 in Rhode Island

Gardiner Coat of Arms Meaning

The four main devices (symbols) in the Gardiner blazon are the griffin, mullet, bucks’ head and escallop. The three main tinctures (colors) are argent, gules and azure .

Argent is the heraldic metal Silver and is usually shown as very pure white. It is also known more poetically as pearl, moon (or luna) 1Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53. In a sketch or drawing it is represented by plain, unmarked paper 2A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1847, P11.

Gules, the heraldic colour red is very popular, sometimes said to represent “Military Fortitude and Magnanimity”3The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P36. It is usually abbreviated as gu and in the days before colour printing was shown in a system known as hatching by vertical lines 4Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P52. Although it may look like a French word it is normally pronounced with a hard “g” and may be derived either from the Latin gula (throat) or Arabic gule (rose).5A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1847, P154

Azure is the heraldic colour blue, usually quite a deep, dark shade of the colour (there is a lighter blue that sometimes occurs, known as celestial azure). If colour printing is not available then it can be represented by closely spaced horizontal lines in a scheme known as “hatching” 6Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 26. The word is thought to originate from the Arabic lazura and it represents the colour of the eastern sky. It is also said to be the colour associated by the Catholic Church with the Virgin Mary and hence of particular significance 7The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P150.

In the mediaeval period there was no real percieved difference between real and mythical animals, after all, much of the world remained unknown and who was to say what strange and magical creatures existed in distant lands? As heraldry developed a whole menagerie of imagined creatures 8Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P164 came into being, and their various representations became more or less standardised in form and appearance. The griffin is perhaps the most common of these creatures, being a chimera with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle. 9A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Griffin. It is most often in the pose known as rampant segreant, on its hind legs with claws and wings extended. Vinycomb has much to say on the subject of the griffin, perhaps summarised in his belief that it represents “strength and vigilance”.]10Fictitious & Symbolic Creatures…in British Heraldry, J. Vinycomb, Chapman & Hall, London, 1906, P150

The heraldic mullet, not to be confused with the fish of that name, is shown as a regular, five pointed star. This was originally, not an astronomical object, but represented the spur on a horseman’s boot, especially when peirced, with a small circular hole in the centre it represents a type of spur known as a “rowel” 11Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 97. A clear example can be found in the arms of Harpendene, argent, a mullet pierced gules. The ancient writer Guillim associated such spurs in gold as belonging to the Knight, and the silver to their esquires 12A Display of Heraldry, J. Guillim, Blome, London, 1679, P107. In later years, Wade linked this five pointed star with the true celestial object, the estoile and termed it a “falling star”, symbolising a “divine quality bestowed from above” 13The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P105.

The chief is an area across the top of the field 14Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 40. It appears in many different forms and can itself be charged with other charges and ordinaries, 15A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Chief, being treated almost as if it were a completely separate area. In its simplest form it can be clearly identified. Early examples include the award by Henry III of England to the knight Robert de MORTEYN BRETON of Ermine, a chief gules.

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References   [ + ]

1. Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53
2. A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1847, P11
3. The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P36
4. Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P52
5. A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1847, P154
6. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 26
7. The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P150
8. Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P164
9. A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Griffin
10. Fictitious & Symbolic Creatures…in British Heraldry, J. Vinycomb, Chapman & Hall, London, 1906, P150
11. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 97
12. A Display of Heraldry, J. Guillim, Blome, London, 1679, P107
13. The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P105
14. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 40
15. A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Chief