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Blazons & Genealogy Notes

1) P. de Brême D’argent à la fasce d’azur ch de trois étoiles (5) du champ Cimier une étoile (5) d’argent entre deux plumes d’autruche d’azur. English: Argent a fess azure charged with three etoiles of 5 points of the field Crest: a etoile of 5 points argent between 2 plumes of ostrich feathers azure.
2) Prusse – (An., 1 mars 1876) De gueules à un navire du moyen-âge sans mâts d’or acc en chef de trois étoiles d’argent 2 et 1 Cimier un mât d’or avec sa voile du même et une banderole tiercée en fasce de gueules d’argent et de sable Lambrequin à dextre d’argent et de gueules à senestre d’or et de gueules. English: Gules a ship of the middle ages with masts or accompanied by in chief three etoiles argent 2,1 Crest: a mast or with its sails of the same and a narrow flag tierced in fess gules argent and sable Mantling: to the dexter argent and gules to the sinister or and gules.
3) Hesse – (An., 27 mai 1845) D’azur au sautoir de sable bordé d’argent et ch d’une étoile du même Casque couronné Cimier trois plumes d’autruche de sable Lambrequin d’argent et de sable. English: Azure a saltire sable fimbriated argent and charged with an etoile of the same Crowned with a helmet Crest: three plumes of ostrich feathers sable Mantling: argent and sable.
4) Jena Écartelé en sautoir aux 1 et 4 palé de gueules et d’or de huit pièces aux 2 et 3 de sable à une fleur-de-lis d’or Cimier une fleur-de-lis d’or entre deux proboscides coupées d’or sur sable. English: Quarterly per saltire 1st and 4th paly gules and or of eight pieces 2nd and 3rd sable a fleur-de-lys or Crest: a fleur-de-lys or between two proboscides per fess or over sable.
5) Souabe D’or à trois sapins de sinople posés sur un tertre de trois coupeaux du même Cimier une femme issante habillée au naturel les yeux bandés d’or tenant de sa main dextre une épée et de sa senestre une balance. English: Or three fir trees vert on a hillock of three peaks of the same Crest: a woman issuant dressed proper the eyes bendy [?] [striped?] or holding in her dexter hand a sword and in her sinister a set of scales.
6) Wullen (Westphalie) Parti d’azur et d’argent. English: Per pale azure and argent.
7) Prusse – (An., 18 janv. 1701 et 14 sept. 1726) Parti au 1 d’argent à une demi-aigle de Prusse mouv du parti au 2 d’azur à une croix grecque d’argent Casque couronné Cimier un demi-vol de sable Lambrequin d’argent d’azur et de sable Tenants deux sphinx adossés couchés sur une terrasse. English: Per pale 1st argent a demi-eagle of Prussia coming from the pale 2nd azure a greek cross argent Crowned with a helmet Crest: a single wing sable Mantling: argent azure and sable two sphinxes addorsed [back to back] couchant [sitting down] on a mount [probably vert].
8) Saxe, Hesse-Cassel, Néerlande D’or au pal échiqueté d’argent et de gueules (ou de gueules et d’argent) Cimier un panache de cinq plumes d’autruche soutenu d’une aigrette d’argent lesdites plumes d’or de gueules d’argent de gueules et d’or ou un buste d’homme à moustaches posé de front habillé d’argent coiffé d’un bonnet de gueules Lambrequin d’or et de gueules. English: Or a pale checky argent and gules (alternatively gules and argent) Crest: a plume of five ostrich feathers supported by an egret [small heron] argent the aforesaid feathers or gules argent gules and or (alternatively) a bust of a man with a moustache facing the front dressed argent wearing on the head a hat gules Mantling: or and gules.
9) Allemagne Écartelé aux 1 et 4 de gueules à un sanglier rampant d’argent aux 2 et 3 de gueules au pal échiqueté d’argent et de sable Cimiers 1° un sanglier issant et contourné d’argent mouv d’un chapeau de gueules 2° un buste de vieillard habillé d’argent au rabat de gueules couronné de feuillage Lambrequin d’argent et de gueules. English: Quarterly 1st and 4th gules a wild boar rampant argent 2nd and 3rd gules a pale checky argent and sable Crests: 1st a wild boar issuant and reversed argent coming from a hat gules 2nd a bust of an old man dressed argent flaps gules crowned with leaves Mantling: argent and gules.
10) Autriche – (Barons du St-Empire, 13 avril 1805) Coupé au 1 parti a d’or à l’aigle de sable couronnée du champ et ch sur la poitrine du chiffre F II aussi d’or b d’azur à une colombe d’argent tenant en son bec un rameau d’olivier de sinople et posée sur une roue de six rayons d’or au 2 un mur crénelé d’argent maçonné de sable Casque couronné Cimier l’aigle Lambrequin à dextre d’or et de sable à senestre d’argent et d’azur Supports deux aigles au naturel armées d’or. English: Per fess 1st per pale a) or an eagle sable crowned of the field and charged over the stomach the number F II also or azure b) a dove argent holding in its beak an olive branch vert and placed over a wheel of six spokes or 2nd a wall crenellated argent masoned sable Crowned with a helmet Crest: an eagle Mantling: to the dexter or and sable to the sinister argent and azure Supporters two eagles proper armed or.
11) (Barons) – Autriche D’argent à un griffon de gueules becqué d’or tenant de ses pattes une hallebarde au naturel le tout soutenu d’une terrasse de sinople Casque couronné Cimier le griffon issant moins la hallebarde tenant de sa patte dextre un bâton de commandement d’argent en barre accolé d’un rameau de laurier de sinople Lambrequin d’argent et de gueules Supports deux griffons regardants d’argent couronnés d’or. English: Argent a griffin gules beaked or holding in its paws a halberd proper the all supported by a mount vert Crowned with a helmet Crest: the griffin issuant without the halberd holding in its dexter paw a baton [of commandment] argent bendwise sinister accompanied by a laurel branch vert Mantling: argent and gules supporters two griffins reguardant argent crowned or.
12) Ahaus (Westphalie) Parti d’azur et d’argent au canton d’argent. English: Per pale azure and argent a canton argent.
13) Franconie De sable à un senestrochère paré d’or mouv du flanc tenant un flambeau allumé au naturel en barre la flamme en bas et acc de deux étoiles d’or 1 au canton dextre du chef et 1 en pointe Cimier un homme issant habillé d’un écartelé d’or et de sable ceint de l’un en l’autre tenant de sa main dextre un bâton au naturel la main senestre appuyée sur sa hanche entre deux proboscides coupées alternativement d’or et de sable. English: Sable a left arm clothed or coming from the flank holding a torch alight proper bendwise sinister the flame downwards and accompanied by two etoiles or one in the canton dexter of the chief and one in base Crest: a man issuant dressed quarterly or and sable belted counterchanged holding in its dexter hand a baton proper the sinister hand resting on her between two proboscides per fess alternately or and sable.
14) Hesse D’argent au sautoir alésé de gueules à trois pals du même brochant sur le tout les deux pals extérieurs brochant sur les extrémités du sautoir et ch chacun d’une fleur-de-lis d’or Cimier une fleur-de-lis d’or entre deux proboscides. English: Argent a saltire couped gules three palets of the same covering over all, the two outside palets covering over the the ends of the saltire and each charged with a fleur-de-lys or Crest: a fleur-de-lys or between two proboscides.
15) Darmstadt – (Nob. du St-Empire, 17 mars 1770) De gueules à la fasce ondée d’or acc de trois roses d’argent boutonnées d’or Casque couronné Cimier deux guidons tiercés en fasce d’or de gueules et d’argent les hampes au naturel armées d’argent passées en sautoir Lambrequin à dextre d’or et de gueules à senestre d’argent et de gueules. English: Gules a fess undy or accompanied by three roses argent centers or Crowned with a helmet Crest: two flags tierced fesswise or gules and argent the poles [of the flags] proper armed argent placed saltirewise Mantling: to the dexter or and gules to the sinister argent and gules.
16) Franconie D’argent à la fasce vivrée de gueules. English: Argent a fess [right angled] dancetty gules.
17) auf Graffenrieth, Bohême – (Nob. du St-Empire, 10 oct. 1718) De sable à un griffon d’or couronné du même soutenu d’un tertre de trois coupeaux de sinople tenant de sa patte dextre un bâton de commandement de gueules embouté d’or et de sa senestre une épée abaissée d’or dans sa gaine de sable ornée d’or Casque couronné Cimier un griffon issant d’or couronné du même tenant de sa patte dextre une épée haute garnie d’or et de sa senestre la gaine de sable ornée d’or Lambrequin d’or et de sable. English: Sable a griffin or crowned of the same supported by a hillock of three peaks vert holding in its dexter paw a baton [of commandment] gules the tip or and in its sinister a sword lowered or in its sheath [scabbard] sable with the end or Crowned with a helmet Crest: a griffin issuant or crowned of the same holding in its dexter paw a sword upwards hilt and pommell or and in its sinister the scabbard sable with the end or Mantling: or and sable.
18) de Kreit, Wurtemberg – (An., 1555) D’argent à la fasce d’azur acc de deux étoiles du même 1 en chef et 1 en pointe et ch d’une flèche du champ posée en fasce à la bordure componnée de sable et d’or de quatorze pièces Casque couronné Cimier un vol aux armes de l’écu moins la bordure (sur l’aile dextre la flèche est contournée) les plumes extérieures des ailes alternativement d’or et de sable Lambrequin d’argent et d’azur. English: Argent a fess azure accompanied by two etoiles of the same 1 in chief and 1 in base and charged with an arrow of the field placed fesswise a bordure compony sable and or of 14 pieces Crowned with a helmet Crest: a pair of wings with the arms of the shield without a bordure (on the dexter wing the arrow is reversed) the feathers on the outside of the wings alternately or and sable Mantling: argent and azure.

Origin, Meaning, Family History and Werner Coat of Arms and Family Crest

Surname Name Meaning, Origin, Etymology, and Werner History/Genealogy
This German surname derives from a personal (first) which consists of the Germanic words war (guard) and heri (army), an etymology similar to that of the last name Warner. The second origin theory is that this surname is a corrupted version of Warrener, a topographic surname for a person who lived near a gamepark (a place where animals were hunted for food) or an occupational name for a person employed in such a park, which derives from the French word warrene, meaning a piece of land used for breeding small birds and other animals.

One of the earliest bearers was Freidrich Werner of Ingelheim who was documented in 1268 AD. A one Cunrat Werner of Hattstat was recorded in 1272. The name was first found in Lower Saxony (Sachsen), one of the states of the Holy Roman Empire, bordered by the Elbe and Ems River and the North Sea.

Common spelling variants or names with similar etymologies include Werners, Werener, Waernet, Warncke, Woerner, Waerner, Werhner, Wernner, Werneke, Varner, and Werneking.

Some of the earliest bearers in the United States were Christoff Werner (1709), Henrig Werner (New York 1709), Maria Magdalena Werner (New York 1710), Christopher Werner (New York 1710). Two of the earliest settlers in Canada with this name were Conrade and Elizabeth Werner who came to the province of Nova Scotia around 1750.

Hans Werner was born in Bondorf, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany in 1521 and he married Anna von Freyburg, with whom he had issue: Euphrosyne, Jakob, Veit, Margarethe, Ursula, Johannes, Anna, and Jakob. His son Johannes Hans Werner was born in Herrenberg in 1548 and he married Barbara Renzhartz. He had the following children: Christian, Johannes, Magdalena, Anna, Barbara, Peter, Catharine, Maria, Adelheit, and Ursula.

A one Henry Werner was born in Biedenkopf, Hesse in 1570. He married Magdalena and had a son with her named Hans. His son Hans Werner (or Varner) was born in 1600 and he married Anna Margarethea Goeckenlar and had a son with her named Hans Jerg Varner.

Popularity & Geographic Distribution
The last name Werner ranks 931st in popularity in terms in the United Status as of the 2000 Census. The name ranks particularly high in the following nine states: Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The surname Werner is the 22nd most popular surname in Germany and the 118th most common name in Austria. In Sweden, it ranks 259th and it Switzerland, it ranks 251st.

Grantees
We have 19 coats of arms for the Werner surname depicted here. These 4 blazons are from Armorial General published in 1861 by the famous genealogist/heraldist Johannes Baptisa Rietstap. The bottom of this page contains the blazons (in French and English), and in many instances contains some historical, geographical, and genealogical about where coat of arms was found and who bore it.

Notables
There are hundreds of notable people with the Werner surname. This page will mention a handful. Famous people with this last name include: 1) Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) who was an German geologist, born in Prussian Silesia, who developed the theory of the stratification of the earth’s crust and history that came to be known as Neptunism, 2) Alfred Werner (1866-1919) who was a French-born Swiss chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1913 for the octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes, 3) Bjorn Werner (1990) who is a football player in the NFL who went to Florida State and was drafted by the Indianapolis Colts, who was born in Berlin, Germany, 4) Fritz Werner (1898-1977) who was a German choral conductor, organist, and composer from Berlin, 5) Gerhard Werner (1921-2012) who was a medical doctor active in numerous fields such as pharmacology, cognitive neuroscience, and artificial intelligence, 6) Karel Werner (1925) who was a philosopher of religion from Jemnice, Czech Republic, 7) Wendelin Werner (1968) who is a German born French mathematician from Cologne who worked on topics such as Brownian motion and self-avoiding random walks, 8) Reinhold von Werner (1825-1909) who was a Prussian and Imperial German naval officer in the 19th century who fought in the Second Schleswig War, Austro-Prussian War, and Franco-Prussian War, and 9) Franz Werner (1867-1939) was an Austrian zoologist and explorer who specialized in herpetologist and entomologist.

Werner Coat of Arms Meaning

The three main devices (symbols) in the Werner blazon are the estoile, fleur de lis and rose. The two main tinctures (colors) are gules and or.

The bold red colour on a heraldic shield is known as gules. It has a long history within heraldry, it is known that one of those who besieged the scottish castle of Carlaverock in 1300 was the French knight Euremions de la Brette who had as his arms a simple red shield.1The Siege of Carlaverock, N. Harris, Nichols & Son, London, 1828, P180. The word gules is thought to come from the Arabic gule, or “red rose” 2Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 313. Later writers associated it with the precious stone ruby and the metal iron 3Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53, perhaps because of the red glow of iron in the heat of the blacksmith’s forge.

The bright yellow colour frequently found in coats of arms is known to heralds as Or, or sometimes simply as Gold.4Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 27. Along with, argent, or silver it forms the two “metals” of heraldry – one of the guidelines of heraldic design is that silver objects should not be placed upon gold fields and vice versa 5A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P85. The yellow colour is often associated with the Sun, and the zodiacal sign of Leo.6Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53.

There were of course many widely recognised symbols that existed long before the advent of heraldry and it should be no surprise that some of these were adopted as charge in coats of arms 7A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P301. The estoile is a typical example, reflecting the stars in the sky and represented with six wavy points, often with a little shading to give it some depth. 8A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Estoile. The ancient writer Guillim assigns these symbols as the emblems of God’s goodness”. 9A Display of Heraldry, J. Guillim, Blome, London, 1679, P77

The fleur-de-lys (“flower of the lily”) has a long and noble history and was a symbol associated with the royalty of France even before heraldry became widespread. 10Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 3. The Lily flower is said to represent “Purity, or whiteness of soul”11The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P134 and sometimes associated with the Virgin Mary. The fleur-de-lys is also used as a small “badge”, known as a mark of cadency to show that the holder is the sixth son of the present holder of the arms 12A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P489

Natural objects abound in heraldry, and one category that gives especial delight are the many flowers and flowering plants that frequently occur 13A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P262. The rose is also of this type, being drawn, at least a little, realistically and often to very pleasing effect. It has long been present in English heraldry, and as a badge and symbol played an enormous in English history throughout the conflict between rival dynasties known as the War of the Roses. In addition to these familial uses, Wade suggests that red roses signify “beauty and grace” and the white represents “love and faith”. 14The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P132-133

1 Comment

  • Werner Zurek says:

    Werner, Medieval German first name Wernher from warin, protection + hari, army, He defending himself in the army. WERNER Simple name, equal to the Christian name of German origin Werner, M. Malec, Christian names in medieval Poland, Cracow 1994 p. 341, form derived from the old-German name Werinheri / Wer (i) nher, from ‘warning, warning’ + ‘army, army’ H. Naumann, Familiennamenbuch, Leipzig 1987 p. 308, JK Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen, II Auflage, vol. I, Limburg a.d. Lahn 1957 vol. II p. 792. Werner = der Wehrherr ‘armed soldier’, E. Wasserzieher, Hans und Grete. Zweitausend Vornamen, 15th Auflage, Bonn 1959 p. 62. In addition, in the sixteenth century, other herbalists sat in Kotków, like Piotr Kotkowski h. Gryf and Andrzej Kotkowski h. Róża, witnesses at the nobility in Piotrkow, 1523, Sebastyan of Zielonczyn (Ziemia. Halic, 9 f. 762) . From this Kotków came certainly Ubisław h. Bielina 1434, although he was written from Chotchowice, testifying in nobility in Radomsko and Jan from Kotkowice, student of the University of Krakow in 1474 Paweł Kotkowski in Bełza 1439. Bartosz, on the courts in Lviv 1445 (AGZ. XIV and XIX). Tomasz, heir of the Grove, in Sandomierz, in the second half of the fifteenth century (Lib. Ben.). Kotkowscy h. Ostoja, usually wrote from Rudołtowice. In Kotków, Wola Kotkowska and Rudołtowice, in 1552 Piotr, Jan and Andrzej, brothers Kotkowski and Elżbieta, in part Przywczyc (Paw.). Jan Kotkowski, cupbearer in Sieradz, 1536 Piotr Kotkowski, courtier of Zygmunt August, 1548 (M. 74 f. 334), from his wife, Ewa, had four sons: Jan, Gabryel, Floryan and Mikołaj 1583 (Wyr. Lub. 15 f. 36), and daughter Elżbieta, wife of Zygmunt Wielogłowski, who gave way to 1558 his patrimony to brother Jan. Of them: Gabryel had two sons: Jan and Floryan. Jan was married to Zofia Kowalowska in 1599. Floryan, son of Mikołaj, died before 1580. He was married to Zofia z Dembian, judge of Kraków, widow of Jan Uliński (Z. Gr. Czerski 56 f. 574, Wy. Lub. 59 f. 743 and 80 f. 12 Z. Książskie 24 of 1580). Mikołaj, student at the University of Basel in 1558, heir of Gołyszyn, in the proszowski poviat, 1581 (Paw.), Writing from Rudołtowice, podczasza sieradzki, in the years 1579-1590 (A. Krak.), Deputy on sejmy, he left a few sons, of whom Stanisław, ceded the sum of Żukowski to 1631 (Zap. Lub. 33 f. 1151). Married to Konancy Chrząstowska, he left her daughter, Anna, for Krzysztof Ujejski, mother of the canon of Gniezno in 1678 (Cor.). Zygmunt, the second son of Mikołaj, member of parliament in 1626, died in 1630. One of them was Zygmunt, hereditary to Kotowy in 1671 (Zap. Lub. 54 f. 469). Gabryel, married 1589 with Elżbieta Cieciszewska, daughter of Jan (Z. Gr. Czers. 57 f. 829). Abraham, married 1627 with Zofia Mrowińska, 1st v. Stanisławowa Grabińska. Maryanna, 1st v. Stefanowa Politalska, 2nd v. Samuelowa Jackowska 1643. Bartłomiej, archdeacon of Kamieńki, 1658 (AGE, XI, 4692). Piotr, burgrave of Piotrków, 1660. Lukrecya, daughter of Mikołaj of Rudołtowice, burgrave of Kraków and Dorota Rupniewska, 1665 wife of Marek Bidziński, and Zuzanna, at that time, after Andrzej Bidziński. Zofia from Rudołtowice, widow of Mikołaj Dębicki, 1660, wife of Andrzej Kuczkowski. Władysław, from the Sieradz Voivodship, the elector of Jan Kazimierz, and Stefan, with this voivodship and Mikołaj, with the Krakow voivodship, signed the electors of King Michał. Mikołaj and Stanisław, guardians of Dembiński and Lippi, 1661 and 1662. Stefan from Rudołtowice, married to Beata of Łukowica (Sędzimirówna), married to the Dunin (Obl. Krak. 113 f. 645). Andrzej, Mikołaj and Zygmunt, with the province of Sandomierz, and Krzysztof, with the Krakow voivodship, signed the electorate of August II. This Krzysztof Ścibor, a noblemen of Novgorod in 1699, called a governor of 1714, childless with his wife, Krystyna and Konar Firlejówna, had a brother Stanisław, married to Helena of Dembian, whose son Bogusław, brought against him a manifesto in 1714 (Obl. Krak. 138 A f. 3689). Bogusław Ścibor from Rudołtowice, who has been constantly known as Novgorod’s follower since 1721, heir of Kaczkowice, Więckowice, Sobowic and Rzuchowa, arranged for Wąsowicz for sum, 1725 (Gr. Krak: 149 f. 2357). He died before 1745. Married, one-on-one, with Anna Karwick, 2-ov. With Teofilą of Łętowskis Jordanowa, left daughters: Salomea, wife of the 1st v. Tomasz Wielogłowski, burgher bishop, heir of Nagłowice, 2-o v Andrzej Feliks Sędzimir, burgrave of Kraków and Teresa, wife of Flory Straszewski, treasurer of Kraków, 1745, son of Stanisław, sword-bearer of Kraków in 1756, carpenter of 1764, finally judge of the land of 1765, died of Stanisław Stanisław, married to Eufrozyna Jordanówna, daughter of his stepmother, daughter: Aniela Janowa Stadnicka, Rozalia Józefowa Jordanowa, died 1804 and Apolonia Feliksowa Mieroszewska. Mikołaj, Liw carpentry, 1699 N., Liwski carpenter in 1703, and Alexander 1715, Andrzej received a royal consensus in 1700, to buy Pierzchowiec from Ćwikowskich (Hand of Oss. Sig. 262 f. 16). Kunegunda, daughter of Zygmunt and Dorota Przerębska, after Wojciech Graniewski 1704 (Gr.B.48, 143, 313, 176). The other daughter of the same Zygmunt; Teresa, 1-o v. Łukaszowa Bratkowska, 2-v. Aleksandrowa Sobieszczańska, 3-v. Michałowa Kossecka, sub-city Mielnicka, 1722 registered 12,000 flor. to her fourth husband, Antoni Miłżecki, and she was able to receive 8,000 floras from the reception. Nicholas and Aleksander, brothers of Kotkowski (Gr. Sandom.). Józef Scibor from Rudołtowice, acknowledged by Dembiński in 1747. The aforementioned Stanisław, sword-bearer of Krakow, marshal

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References   [ + ]

1. The Siege of Carlaverock, N. Harris, Nichols & Son, London, 1828, P180
2. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 313
3. Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53
4. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 27
5. A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P85
6. Understanding Signs & Symbols – Heraldry, S. Oliver & G. Croton, Quantum, London, 2013, P53
7. A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P301
8. A Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry, J.H. Parker, Oxford, 1894, Entry:Estoile
9. A Display of Heraldry, J. Guillim, Blome, London, 1679, P77
10. Boutell’s Heraldry, J.P. Brooke-Little, Warne, (revised Edition) London 1970, P 3
11. The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P134
12. A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P489
13. A Complete Guide to Heraldry, A.C. Fox-Davies, Bonanza (re-print of 1909 Edition), New York, 1978, P262
14. The Symbolisms of Heraldry, W. Cecil Wade, George Redway, London, 1898 P132-133