Origin, Meaning and Family History of the Craw Name
Origins of Craw:
This surname, with various spellings such as Crow, has two different possible sources, one English and the other Gaelic Irish. In the first example, the source is from the Middle English “crowe” (Olde English “crawa”), which means “crow,” and formerly provided as a nickname to a person considered to bear an imagined similarity to the bird, maybe a person with especially dark hair. The surname from this origin first develops on the register in the late part of the 12th Century. Other early documentations contain a Nicholas Crowe, in the 1187 Pipe Rolls of Norfolk, and William Croe, in the Hundred Rolls of Suffolk, dated 1273. One Thomas Crow, listed in Registers of the Jurisdiction of Dunblane, shows to be the first Scottish name carrier. In Ireland, the surname Crow(e) is used as an Anglicized form of the Old Gaelic surname “Mac Enchroe” from an initial “Mac Conchradha,” “son of Conchradha,” a particular name including the component “con,” which means follower. The Slogan “Skeagh mac en chroe” is joined to the Coat of Arms for the Crow(e) family of Division Clare. Mitford Crow, Colonel and British consular agent, became administrator of Barbados in 1707
More common variations are: Cgraw, Caraw, Crraw, Crauw, Coraw, Craow, Creaw, Curraw, Carraw, Cawraw.
The surname Craw first appeared in Lancashire at Cranshaw (Cronkshaw) in the church of Rochdale or Bury. One of the first registers of the name was William de Crounkeshawe who was noted there in 1412. Cranshaws Castle or Cranshaws Tower is a 15th-century pele near the hamlet of Cranshaws in Berwickshire, Scotland. The palace considered being the motivation for “Ravenswood Palace,” home of Edgar, the hero of Sir Walter Scott’s play the Bride of Lammermoor.
The very first recording spelling of the family was shown to be that of Ailwin Crawe, dated about 1180, in the “Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire.” It was during the time of King Henry II who was known to be the “The Builder of Churches”, dated 1154-1189. The origin of surnames during this period became a necessity with the introduction of personal taxation. It came to be known as Poll Tax in England. Surnames all over the country began to develop, with unique and shocking spelling varietions of the original one.
Many of the people with surname Craw had moved to Ireland during the 17th century.
United States of America:
Individuals with the surname Craw landed in the United States in two different centuries respectively in the 17th and 19th. Some of the people with the name Craw who arrived in the United States in the 17th century included Samll Craw, who came to Virginia in 1664.
The following century saw much more Craw surnames come. Some of the people with the surname Craw who arrived in the United States in the 18th century included Daniel Craw, who landed in Florida in 1765.
Here is the population distribution of the last name Craw: United States 1,418; Philippines 387; New Zealand 381; England 253; Scotland 203; Australia 201; Canada 82; Brazil 79; South Africa 73; Spain 3.
Demas Thurlow “Nick” Craw (April 1900 – November 1942) was an American Army Air Forces officer and a winner of the United States military’s highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his efforts in World War II.
Garvie Craw (January 1948 – July 2007) was an American football player. He played college football at the University of Michigan from the year 1967 to the year 1969.
Pavel Kravar (near the year 1391-July 1433), or Paul Crawar, Paul Craw, was a Hussite emissary from Bohemia who was burned at the stake for heresy at St Andrews in Scotland in July in the year 1433. He was the first of a series of religious reformers who were sainted in the town throughout the development of the subsequent Protestant Reformation. (The others being: Patrick Hamilton in 1528, Henry Forest in 1533, George Wishart in 1546, and Walter Myln in 1558).
Charles D. Craw (c.1941-present), is a Naval Chief Petty Officer out of the U.S.S. Sea Robin (SS 407).
Craw Coat of Arms Meaning
The four main devices (symbols) in the Craw blazon are the crow, per chevron, mullet and cinquefoil. The three main tinctures (colors) are vert, gules and or .
The deep green colour that is so often observed in heraldry is more properly known as vert. According to Wade, the use of this colour signifies “Hope and Joy”, but may also represent, rather delightfully, “Loyalty in Love” . It has other names also, the French call it sinople, perhaps after a town in Asia Minor from where the best green die materials could be found . More fanciful heralds liked to associate it with the planet venus and the precious stone emerald . More strangely, there is some evidence that the term prasin was anciently used, being the Greek for the vegetable we call the Leek!
The bold red colour on a heraldic shield is known as gules. It has a long history within heraldry, it is known that one of those who besieged the scottish castle of Carlaverock in 1300 was the French knight Euremions de la Brette who had as his arms a simple red shield.. The word gules is thought to come from the Arabic gule, or “red rose” . Later writers associated it with the precious stone ruby and the metal iron , perhaps because of the red glow of iron in the heat of the blacksmith’s forge.
The bright yellow colour frequently found in coats of arms is known to heralds as Or, or sometimes simply as Gold.. Along with, argent, or silver it forms the two “metals” of heraldry – one of the guidelines of heraldic design is that silver objects should not be placed upon gold fields and vice versa . The yellow colour is often associated with the Sun, and the zodiacal sign of Leo..
Birds of great variety occur throughout heraldry, at least in name . In truth, despite the proliferation of species, the actual depictions can sometimes be hard to distinguish! The crow, raven, rook and many older names are commonly to be found on a coat of arms but all tend to share the same appearance . Wade discusses the symbolism of the crow, disputing Sloane-Evans suggestion as an emblem of “long life” and preferring “a settled habitation and a quiet life” instead.
To add variety and interest to the arms, heraldic artists began to divide the background of the shield into two parts, giving each a different colour. They were named for the ordinary that they most resembled, so the division of the shield by an inverted ‘V’ shape, similar to the ordinary known as the chevron came to be called per chevron . Visually rather striking, it can be even more effective if one charge is placed below the point, and two others above and to the sides. . Wade considers the use of the per chevron division to indicate “constancy, with peace and Sincerity”.
The heraldic mullet, not to be confused with the fish of that name, is shown as a regular, five pointed star. This was originally, not an astronomical object, but represented the spur on a horseman’s boot, especially when peirced, with a small circular hole in the centre it represents a type of spur known as a “rowel” . A clear example can be found in the arms of Harpendene, argent, a mullet pierced gules. The ancient writer Guillim associated such spurs in gold as belonging to the Knight, and the silver to their esquires . In later years, Wade linked this five pointed star with the true celestial object, the estoile and termed it a “falling star”, symbolising a “divine quality bestowed from above” .