Origin, Meaning and Family History of the Crawford Name
Crawford Surname Name Meaning, Origin, History, & Etymology
This Scottish, English, and Northern Irish last name is a habitational name referring to a person who was from any of several places throughout Britain called Crawford, including places in Lanarkshire (Gaelic: Siorrachd Lannraig), Dorset, and Lancashire. The name derives from the Old English or Anglo-Saxon words crawe (meaning crow) and ford (ford, a place for crossing a river). This literally translates as a ford by a colony of crows of rooks. The family is said to have originated from the old Barony of Crawford in the upper ward of Lanarkshire. Some claim the progenitor of the family was Sir John (or Johannes) de Crawford or Craufurd who was born in Crawford, Ayreshire, Scotland. He had three issue: Gualterus, Reginald, and Margaret.
In his 1857 book, An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names, William Arthur states the following in regard to this popular surname: “The extreme ancestor of the ancient family of Crawford, in Scotland, was Reginald, youngest son of Alan, the fourth Earl of Richmond. He seems to have accompanied David the First to the north, and to have received extensive grants of land in Strath Cluyd, or Clydesdale, whence his immediate descendants adopted the name of Crawford, then forming one of the largest baronies in Scotland, and signifying in Gaelic “The pass of blood,” from cru, bloody, and ford, a pass or way, as commemorative, probably, of some sanguinary conflict between the Aborigines and the Roman invaders. The name has been derived by others from crodh and port, pronounced cro—fort, signifying “a sheltering place for cattle”.
According to the Crawford Clan Association, the name can be traced to “the upper Clyde River Valley in Lanarkshire, historically represented by the towns of Crawford and Crawfordjohn, and in its early history, the Barony of Crawford. The surname goes back to the late 1000’s when the Barony of Crawford is noted in local, royal, and ecclesiastic records. The first reference to an individual being “of Crawford” was in the reign of Malcolm IV (1153-65). This surname is recognized as an independent House of Scotland with two unique arms designs, continually maintained since before 1196 (surviving seals of the Lord of Loudon Castle who was also Sheriff of Ayr) and 1319 when the Crawford blazon appeared with the oldest surviving colored Scots blazons on the Scottish National Treasure, the Bannatyne Mazer”. It also states “In the Merse, around 1090, begins our family’s history in Scotland. Thorlongus was given undeveloped lands in a place called Ednam, just north of Kelso, to develop and populate. By early 12th century, our ancestor had settled in Crawford. He became known as the Overlord of Crawford. The first known to have taken the surname was Galfridus de Crauford”.
Some spelling variants or names with similar etymologies include Crawfurd, Craufurd, Crawferd, Crawfford, Crafford, Crafort, Craford, Crawforth, Crowfoot, Crofford, and Croffit.
Popularity & Geographic Distribution
The last name Crawford ranks 146th in popularity in the United Status as of the 2000 Census. The name ranks particularly high in the following six states: Georgia, Ohio, South Carolina, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.
The surname Crawford frequency/commonness ranks as follows in the British Isles: England (309th), Scotland (77th), Wales (409th), Ireland (719th) and Northern Ireland (58th). In England, it ranks highest in counties Northumberland and Durham. In Scotland, the surname ranks highest in counties Bute, Renfrewshire, and Ayrshire. In Wales, it ranks highest in counties Merionethshire and Brecknockshire. In Ireland, it ranks highest in county Donegal. In Northern Ireland, it ranks highest in county Antrim. The name is also present throughout the remainder English speaking world: Canada (239th), New Zealand (105th), Australia (191st), and South Africa (977th).
Early Bearers of the Surname
One of the first known bearers of this name was John de Crauford who was listed in the Records of the Abbey of Kelso around 1147 AD. The Hundred Rolls of 1273 AD, a census of Wales and England, known in Latin as Rotuli Hundredorum lists two bearers of this surname: Nicholas de Crauford (Somerset) and Robert de Crauford (Oxfordshire). An early baptism involving this surname was Anne, daughter of John Crawford, at St. James Clerkenwell.
Crawford Family Tree & Crawford Genealogy
The following is a discussion of nine different noble, royal, landed, or aristocratic families bearing this last name.
Craufurd of Auchenames
The lineage or ancestry of this branch of the Crawford family tree traces back to Sir Reginald de Craufurd, a man of great eminence, who in 1200 AD, married Margaret de Loudoun, daughter and heiress of James de Loudoin, who received a Charter of the Barony of Loudoun, county Ayr, Scotland, from Richard de Morville, and he came the first Vicecomes of that county. He died in 1226 AD and was succeeded by his son Hugh. This son, Hugh de Crauford of Loudoun, Vicecomes of county Ahy, who witnessed a charter in 1226 AD. He died in 1246 AD. He was succeeded by his eldest son, also named Hugh. This Hugh married a woman named Alicia and had issue with her as follows: Reginald and Margaret (married Sir Malcolm Wallace of Eldersley, had a son named William Wallace, the famous Scottish patriot depicted in the movie Braveheart). Hugh died in 1288 and was succeeded by his son Reginald. Sir Reginald Craufurd of Loudoun, Vicecomes, county Ayr, Scotland who was murdered at a banquet at Ayr in 1297 AD. He had a son and successor at Loudon named Reginald. Reginald’s daughter, Susan Craufurd, married Sir Duncan Campbell of Redcastle and from this marriage descended the Earl of Loudoun. The male line of the family was carried on by Sir Reginald Craufurd of Crosbie, second son of Hugh, of Loudoun, who obtained a grand of lands of Auchenames, county Renfrew, in 1320 AD, for this serves to Robert the Bruce, and also received an augmentation to his arms of two lances in saltire, commemorating his exploits at Bannockburn. He was succeeded by his son Reginald. This son, Reginald Crauford, of Auchenames and Crosbie, had a son and successor named Thomas. Thomas Craufurd, of Auchenames, married the daughter and heiress of Malcolm Galbraith. They had a son and successor named Archibald. Archibald of Auchenames married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Douglas of Peircetoun, and had two sons with her: Thomas (ancestor of the Craufurds of Thirdpart) and Robert (heir). The heir, Robert Craufurd of Auchenames, married Lady Isabel Douglas, daughter of George, Master of Angus, and had a daughter with her who married Mr. Semple of Noblestoun. Robert secondly married Marion, daughter of Houstoun of Houstoun, with whom he had three sons: James, Henry, and Robert. He bought with King James IV of Scotland at the battle of Flodden where he died in 1513. His eldest son and heir, Thomas Craufurd, married Marion, daughter of Montgomery of Hazlehead, and had three sons with her. The eldest son was John. This John Craufurd of Auchenames died at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 without posterity, at which point the estates devolved to his brother William. William Craufurd marrued Annabel, daughter of Charlmers of Gadgirth, and had one son with her named James of Crosbie, in 1579, married Lady Elizabeth Cuninghame. He had a daughter with her named Jane, who in 1606, married Patrick Craufurd of Auchnames, and therefore the ancient estates of the family were reunited. William died in 1582 whereupon the Barony of Auchenames reverted to his brother, Patrick. This Patrick Craufurd of Auchenames married a daughter of John Frazer, third laird of Knock, and had a son and successor with her named William. In 1587, William married Margaret, daughter of Sir Patrick Houstoun, and had a son with her named Patrick, who was his successor. This Patrick married Jane Crauford, daughter and heiress of James Craufurd, and thus again united the ancient estates of Crosbie and Auchenames. They had several children, including Elizabeth (married Robert Hunter of Hunterson) and William. The son William Craufurd of Auchnames married Anna, daughter of Lamont of Innertne, county Argyll, Scotland, and had four children with her as follows: 1) Archibald (heir), 2) daughter (married Mr. Houston of Houstoun), 3) daughter (married Mr. Kennedy of Kilbenzie), and 4) daughter (married Mr. Boyd of Trochrig). His son and successor, Archibald, of Auchenames and Crosbie, was the 16th Baron. He married Margaret, daughter of Porterfield, of that ilk, and had issue with her as follows: 1) William (married Helen, daughter of Sir Thomas Burnet of Crimond, had several children including a daughter who married Patrick Edmonstown of Newtwon, but died without a male heir), 2) Anna (married James Bruce of Powfouls), 3) Jane, and 4) Margaret (married James Young of Killicanty). Since Archibald left no male heirs, the estates of Auchenames and Crosbie were brought to judicial sale in 1715, during the minority of his grand-daughter, and were purchased by Patrick Craufurd, Merchant, Edinburegh, younger son of David Craufurd of Drumsoy. The second daughter, Jane Craufurd, of Auchenames and of Crosbie, by an arrangement made in 1695 on the death of her only brother. She married Patrick Craufurd of Edinburgh (mentioned above), who afterwards became of Drumsroy, and had issue with him as follows: 1) Patrick (heir to Auchenames and Drumsoy), 2) George (Lieutenant Colonel of the 53rd Regiment, married Anne, daughter of Edward Randal, Esquire of Salisbury and had seven issue: 1) Mary (married Thomas Gilbert, Esq., M.P), 2) Patrick George (in 1776, married Jean, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Donald MacDonald, had children named George, John, William Petres, Captain Donald, Margaret Randal, and Catherine Mary), 3) Ronald (of Restalrig, in 1743, married Catherine, daughter of John Forbes of Newhall, had issue named Patrick, Margaret, Jane, Annabella, and Catherine Forbes), 4) James (prominent merchant in Holland, married Elizabeth Andrews of Rotterdam, had issue named Patrick, James, George, Ronald, and Margaret), 5) Hugh (Merchant in the East Indies), 6) Alexander (an officer in the army, died in Lord Cathcart’s expedition to Carthagena in 1741), and 7) John (an officer in the army, attained rank of Lieutenant-General). Patrick died in 1733 and was succeeded by his son Patrick. This son, Patrick Craufurd, of Drumsoy, Aucenames, was a Member of Parliament for county Edinburgh, Scotland in 1741 and 1747, as well as for county Renfrew in 1761. He married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of George Middleton, Esq. Banker of London, and had two sons with her: John and James. He died in 1778 and was succeeded by the elder son John. John Craufurd of Drumsroy and Auchenames, was a Member of Parliament for Old Sarum in 1768 and later for county Renfrew in 1774. He died in 1814 without posterity and hence was succeeded by his cousin, also named John. John Craufurd was an Esquire of Auchenames and Crosbie, Justice of the Peace, and Deputy Lieutenant who was born in 1780. In 1814, he married Sophia Marianna, daughter of Major-General Horace Churchill, ad had issue with her as follows: Edward Henry John (discussed below), Frederick Augustus Buchanan (Admiral in the Royal Navy), Robert Emilius Fazakerley (Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Army), George Ponsonby, Katherine Horatia, and Georgiana Janet (married Count Marco Auerlio Saffi, one of the Triumvirs of the Republic of Rome). He died in 1867 and was succeeded by his eldest son Edward. Edward Henry John Craufurd was an Esquire of Auchenames county Ayr, Justice of the Peace, Deputy Lieutenant, Member of Parliament for the Ayr District of Burgh, an M.A., and a Barrister-at-Law who was born in 1816. In 1863, he married Frances, daughter of Reverend William Molesworth, Rector of St. Brooke, and had four children with her as follows: Hugh Ronald George (1873), Mary Beatrice (1864), Katharine Yseult (1866), and Frances Guenevere (1868). The Craufurd Coat of Arms is blazoned in the medieval art of heraldry as follows: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, gules, a fess ermine, surmounted of two lances in saltire argent, the augmentation granted by Robert the Bruce to Sir Reginald Craufurd in 1320; 2nd and 3rd, argent, a stag’s head erased gules between his attires a cross-crosslet fitchee sable. Crest: A stag’s head erased gules between the attires a cross-crosslet fitchee; 2nd, a phoenix proper rising from the flames. Supporters: Two bulls sable armed and unfuled or. Mottoes: “Gow shaw the right” and “Tutum te robore reddam”. This family was seated at Auchnames House, West Kilbride.
Houison-Craufurd of Craufurdland and Braehead
The lineage, ancestry, or genealogy of this historical family traces back to John Craufurd, 3rd son of Sir Reginald de Crauford. He was a Sheriff of Ayrshire. He married Margaret de Loudoun and obtained, from his father, lands in Clydesdale, and through his wife he became the chief proprietor of the Barony. He had a son named John Craufurd who lived during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland. This John in turn had a son named John. The son, John, himself had a son named James. James Craufurd fought under William Wallace and assisted at the election of that chief to the wardenship of Scotland, at the Forest Kirk, in the shire of Selkirk in 1297 AD. His great grandson was Sir William Craufurd of Craufurdland, distinguished in arms, knighted by King James I. He was wounded at the siege of Crevelt in France. He was the progenitor of the House of Craufurd of Craufurdland. His descendant was John Craufurd, of Craufurdland, died at Flodden, and his younger brother, Archibald, was a Lord of Session, and Secretary and Almoner to Mary Stuart. John’s descendant was Lieutenant Colonel John Walkinshaw Craufurd of Craufurdland. He fought at Dettingen and Fontenoy. He died in 1793. Another descendant, Elizabeth Craufurd, married John Houison, Esquire of Braehead, in 1744. She died at age 97 in 1802 and was succeeded by her only surviving child, Elizabeth. This Elizabeth Houison Craufurd of Braehead and Craufurd, in 1777, married the Reverend James Moodie, who assumed the additional surnames of Houison and Craufurd. She had two children: Isabella (married William Keith in 1844) and William. William Houison Craufurd was an Esquire of Craufurdland and Braehead, Justice of the Peace, and Deputy Lieutenant, who was born in 1781. In 1808, he married Jane Esther, daughter of James Whyte of Newmains, and had three children with her: 1) John Reginald (see below), 2) Elizabeth Constance (married James Ogilvy Fairlie of Coodham), and Janet Winifred. He died in 1871 and was succeeded by his son John. John Reginald Houison-Craufurd was an Esquire of Houison-Craufurd, county Ayr, and of Braehead, Midlothian, a Justice of the Peace, and Deputy Lieutenant who was born in 1811. In 1847, he married Mary Dundas, daughter of John Hamilton of Sundrum, and had issue with them as follows: William Reginald (Lieutenant of the 91st Highlanders), John Archibald, Caroline Dundas, Jane Beatrice, and Constance Mary. The Craufurd family crest for this branch of the family tree is blazoned in heraldry as follows: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Craufurd, gules a fess ermine; 2nd and 3rd, Houison, argent, a heart proper on a chief azure three fleur-de-lis or. Crests: Craufurd: A marble pillar supporting a man’s heart proper. Houison, argent, a heart proper on a chief azure three fleurs-de-lis. Crests: Craufurd: A marble pillar supporting a man’s heart proper. Houison: A dexter hand couped apaumee proper. Mottos: Craufurd: Stant innixa Deo; Houison: Sursum corda. This Scottish family was seated at Craufurdland Castle, near Kilmarnock, Ayshire, and Breahead, in Midlothian.
Crawfurd of Milton
The Crawfurd genealogy of this branch of the family tree traces back to William Stirling and his wife Jean Stuart, daughter of Sir John Stuart of Castlemilk. They had a son named Captain William Stirling of the 1st Dragoon Guards. In 1818, William married Mary, daughter of John Anderson of London, and had one child with her: William Stuart. This son, William Stuart Stirling-Crawfurd was an Esquire of Milton, county Lanark, Justice of the Peace, and Deputy Lieutenant, who was born in 1819. In 1876, he married, Caroline Agnes, daughter of John, 2nd Lord Decies. He succeeded to the estate of Milton and took the name Crawfurd, in terms of the entail executed by John Crawfurd, Esquire, 1706. The Crawfurd family crest is blazoned as follows: Gules, a fess ermine between three mullets argent within a bordure of the last. Crest: A crescent argent. This family was seated at Milton, near Lanark.
Crawfurd of Cartsburn
The genealogy or ancestry of this branch of the family tree traces back to Thomas Crawfurd of Carsburn, son of Cornelius of Jordanhill and his wife Jean (daughter of Andrew Semple of Milnbank), was born in 1631. Thomas had two issue: Thomas (his heir) and George. He died in 1695 and was succeeded by Thomas. This son, Thomas Crawfurd, was born in 1662. He married Bethia, daughter of Archibald Robertson of Bedlay, with whom he had the following issue: Thomas (married Cecil, daughter of John Forbes of Knappernee), Archibald, and Christian. He died in 1743 and was succeeded by his son Archibald Crawfurd of Cartsburn, who was born in 1710. Archibald married Margaret, daughter of John Cunninghame of Caddell and Thornton. He died in 1783 and was succeeded by his only son Thomas. This son, Thomas Crawfurd of Cartsburn was born in 1746. He died in 1791 and was succeeded by his Aunt Christian. Christian was born in 1705. She married Robert Arthur and died in 1796. She was succeeded by her only son William. This son, William Macknight Crawfurd was born in 1785. He succeeded to the estate of Ratho upon the death of his father in 1811 and to Cartsburn upon the death of his mother in 1819. In 1817, he married Jane, daughter of John Crawford of Broadfield. He died in 1855 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. Thomas Macknight Crawfurd was an Esquire of Cartsburn, county Renfrew and Lauriston Castle, Midlothian, Justice of the Peace, and member of the 93rd Highlanders. He married Jane Cunningham, daughter of John Allan Woddrop of Dalmarnock and Garvald and Marion Hunter, and had children with her, including Marion Woddrop Macknight. The Crawfurd Coat of Arms has the following heraldic blazon: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Crawfurd, gules, a fess ermine in base two swords saltireways proper hilted and pommeled ort, all within a bordure wavy argent; 2nd and 3rd, Macknight, sable, three lions’ heads erased or, langued gules. Crests: 1st: A sword erect in pale, having a pair of balances on the point all proper; 2nd: A demi-lion rampant or, armed and langued gules.
Craufuird of Baidland, now of Ardmillam
The lineage begins with Andrew Craufuird of Baidland (lineally derived from a younger branch of Sir Reginald Craufurd of Loudoun, the Sheriff of Ayrshire in 1296 AD). He married Jean, daughter of Sir James Lockhart, of Lee, and had a son with her named David. David Craufuird of Baidland had a daughter named Margaret (she married James Boyle of Hawkshill in 1617) and a son named Patrick. The son Patrick had a son named William. William Craufuird of Baidland had two issue: Isabel (married James Craufurd of Jordan Hill) and James. His son and successor, James, married the daughters and co-heirs of Hugh Kennedy of Ardmillan, and had several children with her, including William, James (ancestor of the Crawfurds of Sussex), and a daughter who married David Craufurd of Drumsoy. His heir was his son William. William Craufuird of Ardmillan became distinguished for his defence of the fortress of the Bass, in the Frith of Forth, against King William in 1691. He married Margaret, daughter of Kennedy of Baltersane, and had sons. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Archibald. This son, Archibald Craufuird of Ardmillan, married Marion Hay, and had two sons with her: Archibald (see below) and Thomas (officer in the army, purchased Ardmillan, married Anne, daughter of John Taylor of East Sheen, and had children with her named Archibald Clifford Blackwell, Margaret, and Anne). The elder son, Archibald Craufuird of Ardmillan, married Anne, daughter of Robert Kennedy of Liverpool, and had sons with her. He died in 1784 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Archibald. The son, Archibald, was an Esquire of Ardmillan who married his cousin, Margaretta D’Alboeut, daughter of Thomas Craufuird, and had issue with her as follows: Thomas MacMiken (see below), Hamilton Cathcart (went to America), Margaret (married William Sterndale), Marion, and Anne (married Graham Hutcheson). Thomas MacMiken Craufuird was an Esquire of Grange House, county Ayr, Justice of the Peace, who was born in 1814. In 1843, he married Elizabeth Fraser, eldest surviving daughter of David Steuart Galbraith of Machrehanish and Dromore, and had a son and heir with her named Archibald Hew, born in 1844. The Craufuird coat of arms is blazoned as follows: Quarterly: 1st and 4th, gules, on a fesse, erimine, between three mullets argent, two crescents, interlaced, of the field, for Craufuird; 2nd and 3rd, argent, a chevron, gules, between three cross-crosslets, fitchee, sable, for Kennedy. Crest: A game-hawk, hooded and belled, proper.
Crawfurd of Crawfordsburn
The genealogy or lineage of this branch of the family tree traces back to William Crawford, Esquire, who purchased the estates of Crawfordsburn, county Antrim, from Lord Clanbrassil, and was then succeeded by his son John. John Crawford was an Esquire of Crawfordsburn who married Jane, daughter of the Crawfords of Ballysavage, and had a son named James. James married Mabel, daughter of Hugh Johnson, and had the following issue with her: Anne (married James Alexander who later became Earl of Caledon), Mary (married David Gordon, Esquire of Florida, county Down), John (his heir), Arthur (married Theodosia Waddell), William (of Cork, Ireland), and James. His eldest son and heir, John Crawford, was an Esquire of Crawfordsburn who in 1784, married Maria, daughter of John Kennedy of Cultra, and had issue with her as follows: Arthur James and Mabel Fridiswide. Mabel was an heiress and married William Sharman. William Sharman-Crawford was an Esquire of Crawfordsburn, county Down, and Stalleen, county Meath, and a Justice of the Peace. In 1805, he married Mabel-Fridiswide, daughter of John Crawford of Crawurdsburn, county Down, and had children with her as follows: John, Arthur, James, Frederick, Charles, William, Henry, Maria (married Henry Coddington of Oldbridge), Arminella, Mable, and Eleanor. He received the surname Crawford by royal license in compliance with the will of the late John Crawford, Esquire. William was also a High Sheriff in 1811, and Member of Parliament for the borough of Dundalk, and later Rochdale.
The Register of the Abbey of Kelso documents, in 1153 AD, one John, stepson of Baldwin de Biggar (ancestor of the Earls of Wigtown), who owned the northern part of the Barony of Crawford, later known as Crawfordjohn, and took from it the surname Craufurd. His son was Sir Reginald de Craufurd, 1st Sheriff of Ayr, born in 1165 AD. Sir Reginald married Margaret, daughter and heir of James de Loudoun, and had five sons with her. He had a son named John, who inherited the paternal estate but his line ended in co-heirs shortly before 1259 AD. His other son, High Craufurd, inherited his mother’s property of Loudoun and also acquired grants in 1226 and 1228 AD from Alan, Lord of Galloway, Constable, the lands of Crosbie and Monnoch. The pedigree continues as follows:
Hugh Craufurd (married Alicia, had a charter of the lands of Draffen in 1271 AD, left a daughter named Margaret who was the mother of William Wallace)
Sir Reginald Craufurd (married Cecilia, murdered by an English garrison at the Black Parliament)
Sir Reginald Craufurd (Sheriff of Ayr, executed by the English at Carlisle in 1307 AD)
Susan Craufurd (married Sir Duncan Campbell of Reidcastle)
Thomas Craufurd (endowed a chapel at Kilbarchan in 1401, also had a son named Robert who was the ancestor of the Craufurds of Auchenames)
Archibald Craufurd (of Previck and Thirdpart)
Archibald Craufurd (of Previck and Thirdpart, married Agnes Galbraith)
John Craufurd (sold the estates to Lord Sempill, murdered in 1524)
John Craufurd (of Drummure, born 1516)
William Craufurd (tenant of the lands of Drings)
Andro Craufurd (acquired the lands of Drings, married Marion Cathcard, had two sons: William, whose male line failed four generations and George)
Reverend George Crauford (Min. of West Kilbridge, married Agnes, daughter of John Montgomery of Bridgend)
Robert Crauford (married Agnes Kennedy of Balsarroch)
James Crauford (acquired the lands of Newark in 1687, married Ann, daughter of Quentin Kennedy of Drummellane)
James’ son was Quentin Craufurd of Newark. He was a justiciary baillie for the West Seas of Scotland. In 1729, he married Ann, daughter of James Robinson or Irvine, and had several issue including two sons: Alexander (see below) and Quentin (made a fortune in India and settled in Paris, reportedly helped Queen Maria Antointette with her failed escape). The elder son, Sir Alexander Craufurd, 1st Baronet, was so created in 1781. In 1760, he married Jane, daughter of James Crokatt of Luxborough, Essex. He had issue, including the following: James (2nd Baronet), Sir Charles Gregan (Member of Parliament, Lieutenant-General in the Army, married Anna Maria, daughter od the 2nd Earl of Harrington), Robert (Major-General in the Army, commanded the Light Division in the Peninsula War, died at the assault of Ciudad Rodrigo, married Mary Fraces, daughter of Henry Holland of Hans Place, had children named Louisa Mary Frances, Reverend Charles Henry Gregan, Robert Gregan, and Daniel. The eldest son, Sir James Gregan-Craufurd, 2nd Baronet, assumed the name and arms of Gregan in 1812 under the mistaken idea that he was a direct descendant of Sir Gregan Craufurd. He was born in 1761. In 1792, he married Maria Theresa, daughter of General Thomas Gage, and had four children: 1) Thomas Gage (Office in the Guards, killed in action at Hougoumont in 1815), 2) Alexander Charles (Lieutenant Colonel in the Army, married Barbara, daughter of 7th Earl of Coventry), 3) Sir George William (3rd Baronet), and 4) Jane (married General Christopher Chowne and later Reverend Sir Henry R. Dukinfield). Sir James was succeeded by his third and only surviving son, George. This son, the Reverend Sir George William Craufurd, 3rd Baronet, was a Fellow of King’s College Cambridge who was born in 1797. In 1843, he married Hester King, daughter of the 7th Baron King, and had two issue with her: Sir Charles William Frederick (4th Baronet) and Henry Thomas Gage. Sir George died in 1881 and was succeeded by his son, Sir Charles William Frederick Craufurd, 4th Baronet, of Kilbirney, county Stirling, Scotland, a Lieutenant Commander of the Royal Navy who was born in 1847. In 1870, he married Isola Caroline Vereker, daughter of 4th Viscount Gort, and had ten children as follows: 1) George Standish Gage (5th Baronet, see below), 2) Quentin Charles Alexander (Captain Royal Navy, married Anne Blackwell), 3) Alexander John Fortescue (born in 1876, Ceres, Cape Province, South Africa, married Alexa Campbell, daughter of Robert Little of Singapore), 4) Charles Edward Vereker (Commander of the Royal Navy, married Sonia, daughter of S. Russell of Stirling House in Clapton Common), 5) Robert Henry Dunkinfield, 6) Hester Jane Leslie, 7) Laline Isolda (Shotley Hall, Northumberland, married High Walton Wilson and later Frederick Thomas Clifton Crump of the Manor House, Cleobury Mortimer, Shropshire), 8) Isolda Mabel Cecil (married Geoffrey Parker, son of Cecil T. Parker, had children), 9) Eleanor Mary Dorothea (married Charles Thackeray Wilbraham, son of Henry), and 10) Margaret Elizabeth Maria (in 1918, married Professor Owen L. V. Simkinson de Wesselow, son of Reverend C.H. de Wesselow, had children). He died and was succeeded by his son George in 1939. Sir Standish George Gage Crauford, 5th Baronet, of Kilbirney, county Stirling, Scotland, was born in 1872. He was a Justice of the Peace, Deputy Lieutenant, and Brigadier-General who served in Tirah, the South African War, the Frontier Force, the Persian Guld, and in World War I (where he was wounded three times). In 1923, he married Ellen Alexandra, daughter of Captain Alexander Price of Haig of Blairhill. The coat of arms is blazoned as follows in heraldry: Argent two tilting spears in saltire proper between four ermine spots sable a bordure chequy gules and of the field. Crest: An ermine proper. Motto: Sine labe nota. This family resided at Swindridge Muir, Dalry, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Crawford of Miramar
James Coutts Crawford, son of James, was an Esquire of Miramar, Wellington, New Zealand, who was originally from Overton, county Lanark, Scotland. He went to New Zealand in 1838. He was a Captain of the 1st Lanark Militia and a Captain of the New Zealand Militia. He was also on the Legislative Council of New Zealand. He was born in 1817 and succeeded his father in 1828. In 1843, he married Sophia, daughter of Admiral Sir James Whitley Deans-Dundas of Barton Court and Aston Hall, and had two children with her: James Dundas (born 1850) and Janet (born 1844, married John Armine Willis, had one son and four daughters). In 1857 he married his second wife, Jessie, daughter of Alexander McBarnet of Torridon and Attadale, Scotland, and had three children with her as follows: Henry Duncan (married a daughter of Colonel Pearce of Wellington), Alexander Donald, and Charles John. He was educated at the Royal Naval College in Portsmouth. He descended from Henry Crawford, an Esquire, merchant, and burgess of Dundee, Scotland, who was himself descended from the Crawfords of Kilbirny in county Ayr, Scotland, who bought Easter Seatoun in Forfar in 1670 and registered arms. He married Elizabeth Dunsmure. The coat of arms for this branch of the Crawford family tree is blazoned as follows: Quarterly: 1st and 4th, gules, a fesse, wavy ermine, between three mullets, argent, pierced azure, for Crawford; 2nd and 3rd, sable a chevalier on horseback, armed at all points cap-a-pie, brandishing a scimitar aloft argent, a bordure gules, for Nevay. Crest: An increscent chequy argent and azure. Motto: Fide et diligentia.
Crawford of Ballyshannon
The coat of arms of this branch of the family tree is blazoned as follows: Gules, a fesse ermine, between three crosses pate argent. Mantling: Gules and Argent. Crest: On a wreath of the colours, an ermine passant proper, charged on the shoulder with a trefoil slipped or. Motto: Sine labe nota. Lieutenant Colonel James David Crawford of the Royal Scots Regiment of Volunteers, married Anne, daughter of John Smith of Montreal and had a son with her named Frederick. Frederick Lindsay Crawford, Gentleman, married Henrietta Penfold. Robert Montgomery Crawford, Esquire, was a Commissioner Cape Mounted Police, served in Bechuanaland Expedition (1884-1885) and in the South African War. He was born in 1863. In 1906, he married Jane, daughter of Captain Edward Fiddles of Hollywood, and had two sons with her: Edward Fiddes Crawford (1907) and Robert Montgomery Crawford (1910).
Other Crawford Pedigree & Family Trees
Sir Malcom Crawford (born 1551 in Kilbirnie, Scotland)
John Crawford (born around 1575 in Scotland). He had a son named Sir John Crawford who was born in Kilbirnie, Scotland around 1600 AD. He married Mary McConnell, Mary Margaret Cunningham, and Winifred. He went to colonial America and lived in Jamestown, Virginia. He died in 1676 at Bacons Rebellion. He had six issue: John (Baronet), David, James, Ann, Margaret, and Rebecca (Brown). His son, Colonel David Crawford, was born in Scotland in 1625 and came to Virginia with his father. He purchased 86 acres of land in the parish of Martyn’s Hundred. He gained more acres and was a member of the House of Burgess. He married Jane A., daughter of Patrick Crawford 12th Laird and Jane Craufurd, and had the following children with her: Judith (Lewis), Angelina (McGuire), David II, John, Elizabeth (Meriwether), and Sarah (Brechin). His son, Captain David Crawford II, was born in Jamestown, Virginia, colonial America in 1662. He married Elizabeth, daughter of George Smith, and had the following issue with her: Angelina, Lucy, Martin, Rhode, David, Elizabeth (Martin), John, James, Mary (Rhodes), Judith (Terry), Michael, Moses, and Anna. His son David Crawford was born in Hanover County, Vain 1697. He built a house called Tusculum Planation and had 400 acres. He married Ann Anderson and had issue with her as follows: Susannah (Barnett), John, David, Joel, Charles, Nathaniel, Peter, Nelson, and William. His five sons had issue:
1) John Crawford (born 1731 in Virginia, married Sarah Smith, had children named Thomas, Ann, John Jr., Elizabeth, Sarah, and Peter)
2) David Crawford (born 1734, married Lucy Hendeson, had issue named William Sydney, Nelson, Charles, Reuben, and Elizabeth)
3) Joel Crawford (born 1736, married Frances Elizabeth Harris, had issue named Ann, Robert, Joel, David Lucy, William Harris, Elizabeth, Charles, Fanny, Nathan, and Bennet)
4) Charles Crawford (born 1738 in Hanover, Virginia, married Jane Maxwell, had children named David, Anderson, Elizabeth, Mary Ann, John, William, Charles, Nathan, and Joel)
5) Nathaniel Crawford (born in 1744, married Judith Anderson, had son named William)
Early American and New World Settlers
The book Genealogical Guide to the Early Settlers, mentions one bearer of this last name: Aaron Crawford of Rutland, Massachusetts, who was born in Tyrone, Ireland in 1680,and came to America around 1713 with his sons, Samuel, John, and Alexander. He was the 15th generation descendant from Johannes de Crawford, who lived around 1140 AD, the younger brother of Domenic Galfridus, Feudal Lord of Crawfurd or Crawford. Other settlers in colonial America bearing this surname include Ann Crawford (Virginia 1640), Stephen Crawford (Massachusetts 1649), Donald Crawford (New Jersey 1685), Thomas Crawford (Virginia 1703), Ann Crawford (Philadelphia 1740), Samuel Crawford (Virginia 1740), and Margaret (Philadelphia 1740).
In Canada, one of the first settlers bearing this last name was Peter Crawford, who came to Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 at the age of 25, aboard the Augusta from Liverpool, England, in 1834, Thomas Crawford, age 26, came to the same town aboard the Sarah from Belfast, Ireland. In Australia, John Crawford, a convict from Lancaster, England who came to New South Wales aboard the Asia in 1822. In 1834, John Crawford, a convict from Sussex, England, came to Van Diemen’s Land (present day Tasmania) aboard the Arab. In New Zealand, J.C. Crawford came to the city of Wellington aboard the Success in 1839. George Crawford, a 27-year-old farm servant, came to Wellington in 1840 aboard the Bengal Merchant.
One website states: “In 1790 when President George Washington authorized the first official national census, the average American Crawford family had 5.5 members. The 377 Crawford families were concentrated in Pennsylvania (107), New York (52), North Carolina(40), South Carolina (36), Connecticut (34), and Maryland (30). An additional 78 families lived in other states and 1,600 adult and single Crawfords were not included among these families. Most of these were frontier men and women”.
Early Americans Bearing the Crawford Family Crest
Charles Bolton’s American Armory (1927) contains three entries for this surname:
1) Gules on a fess ermine between 3 mullets 2 crescents interlaced. Motto: Durum patientia frango. Notepaper Kathleen Beale Crawford, 56th St., N. Y.
2) Azure a tilting spear in pale, point down, argent. Bookplate Francis Marion Crawford, author. By Paul Avril.
3) Gules a fess ermine. Crest: an ermine argent. Motto: Sine labora nota. Arms are taken from the Crawford bookplate. Crozier Va. Heral., p. 107.
Crozier’s General Armory (1904) contains one entry:
1) David Crawford of New Kent County, Virginia. Gules, a fess ermine. Crest: An ermine argent. Motto: Sine labora nota.
I have identified 15 Crawford family mottoes:
1) Quod tibi hoc alteri (Luke, vi 31, Do to another what thou wouldst have done to thee)
2) God shaw the right (Craufurd of Newfield, Drumsog, etc.)
3) God shield the right
4) God feeds the crows (Job, xxxviii 41)
5) Hactenus Invictus (Hitherto unconquered)
6) Endure fort (Endure boldy) (Crawford and Balcarres, e. Lindsay)
7) I byde my time (Crawfurd of Newfield))
8) Sine labe lucebit (He shall shine unblemished)
9) Sine labe nota (Known to be without a stain)
10) Toujours pret (Always ready)
11) Tutum te robore (I will make three safe by my strength)*
12) Omnia Deo juvante (I can do all things with God’s help)
13) Fide et diligentia (By Faith and Diligence)
14) Stant innixa Deo (Still leaning on God)
15) Durum patientia frango (By patience I break what is hard)
*Sir Grekan Crawfurd of Kerse, having saved King David I of Scotland from a wild stag, assumed the arms and crest a stag’s head with the above motto
We have 19 coats of arms for the Crawford surname depicted here. These 19 blazons are from Bernard Burke’s book The General Armory of England, Ireland, and Scotland, which was published in 1848. The bottom of this page contains the blazons, and in many instances contains some historical, geographical, and genealogical about where coat of arms was found and who bore it.
There are hundreds of notable people with the Crawford surname. This page will mention a handful. Famous people with this last name include: 1) Cynthia “Cindy” Ann Crawford (1966) who was an American model and actress born in DeKalb, Illinois, 2) Alexander Crawford (1842-1886) who was a sailor in the US Navy who served in the American Civil War and received the Medal of Honor, 3) William Murphy Crawford (1946-2004) who was an American baseball player in the MLB who played for four different teams (ex. Los Angeles Dodgers) from 1964-1977, born in Los Angeles, California, 4) Vice Admiral Sir William Godfrey Crawford (1907-2003) who was a former Royal Navy officer who served in World War II, 5) William Thomas Crawford (1856-1913) who was a member of the US House of Representative for North Carolina from 1891-1895, 1899-1900, and 1907-1909, 6) William Harris Crawford (1772-1834) who was an American political and judge who served as the 7th Secretary of the Treasury (1822-1825), the 9th Secretary of War (1815-1816), Minister to France (1813-1815), and US Senator from Georgia from 1807-1813 who was born in Amherst County, Virginia, 7) Thomas Hartley Crawford (1786-1863) who was a member of the US House of Representative for Pennsylvania from 1829-1833), 8) Stephen Crawford (1974) who was a professional Scottish soccer (football) player from Dunfermline who played from 1992-2001 for teams such as the Raith Rovers and Hibernian, 9) Mary Catherine Crawford (1947) who was a Member of the Australian Parliament for Frode from 1987-1996, and 10) John Willoughby Crawford (1817-1875) who was a Member of the Canadian Parliament for Leeds South and West Toronto, as well as the 3rd Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
Crawfords in the American Revolution
There are numerous bearers of this surname who served in the Revolutionary War. A handful are listed below:
1) Corporal Alex Crawford of Delaware
2) Corporal Davies Crawford of Virginia
3) Captain Edward Crawford of Pennsylvania
4) Lieutenant James Crawford of Maryland
5) Private Stephen Crawford of Massachusetts
6) Lieutenant Colonel William Crawford of Virginia
7) Corporal Archibald Crawford of Virginia
8) Lieutenant David Crawford of New York
9) Isaac Crawford of Vermont
10) Peter Crawford of Virginia (Drum and Fife)